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British Empire and Commonwealth

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Carolin Popp

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of British Empire and Commonwealth

British Empire and Commonwealth
Presentation by Carolin Popp and Wiebke Tutas
Structure
British Empire
1.1 16th century
1.2 17th century
1.3 18th century
1.4 19th century
1.5 20th century
Commonwealth of Nations
2.1 General facts
2.2 Member states
2.3 Founding and history
2.4 Other interesting things
1.
2.
British Empire
= geographic and political
units
formerly
under British control
, including
dominions, colonies, dependencies, trust territories
and
protectorates
->
height
of its power: late 19th and early 20th centuries --> empire comprised
> one quarter of the world's land area and population

-> encompassed
territories on every continent
, including the British Isles, British North America, British West Indies, British Guiana, British West Africa, British East Africa, India, Australia, and New Zealand
16th century
1562
slave trade Africa <-> West India
victory over Spanish Armada
1588
16th and 17th century
formed trading companies
17th century
1607
first colonies in
North America
between the
34th and 45th
latitude
first factories in India since 1611
1612
capture of Bermudas
first base of East India Company in India since 1616
1623
occupation of Saint Kitts
occupation of Barbados
1627
1652
foundation of Cape Colony by EIC
occupation of Jamaica
1655
1664
capture of New Amsterdam
bases at West African coast
1672
EIC
18th century
1704
capture of Gibraltar
got New Scotland, Newfoundland, Hudsonbay
1714
1756-1763
got a big part of colonized North America
captured Bengal and whole India
1757
1758
occupation of Senegal
occupation of Cuba and Philippines
1761
1763
got Canada, West India and Florida
independence of 13 colonies
1776
capture of Philadelphia
1777
industrial revolution
1780
"East India Bill"
1784
foundation of Freetown
1787
capture of Australia
1788
division of Canada
1791
capture of Sri Lanka
1796
extension of base of Trinidad
1797
19th century
1800
capture of Malta
capture of Tasmania
1803
1806
capture of Cape Province
got Seychelles and Mauritius
1815
1819
capture of Singapore
capture and foundation of Rupert´s Land
1821
1824
capture of Malakka
capture of Burma and Western Australia
1826
1831
Belgium got independent
capture of Falkland Islands
1833
1839
capture of Aden and Afghanistan
1840
capture of New Zealand
capture of Hongkong
1842
1843
annexation of Natal
got Oregon
1846
1851
Victoria got British colony
New Zealand got right to self-government
1852
1855-´59
Australian colonies got independent
Canada became Dominion
1867
1872
Cape Land got independent
dissolution of the EIC
1873
1875
purchase of Suez canal
1876
annexation
of Balochistan
capture of Cyprus
1878
1882
English troops occupied Africa
division of Malawi
1884
1885
capture of Botswana and Somalia
capture of Zimbabwe and Rhodesia
1889
1890
independence of West Australia
capture of Kenia
1893
1894
capture of Uganda
capture of whole South Africa
1899
1899-1902
got Oranje and Transvaal
20th century
1900
capture of Nigeria
Australia became a Dominion
1901
1902
Confederation
with Japan
Confederation with France
1904
1907
New-Foundland,
New-Zealand became Dominions; confederation with Russia
got Iraq, Palestine, Jordan, Cameroon, Togo, Tanganyika
1918
1919
GB got most colonies in Africa
Ireland became Dominion
1921
1932
Iraq got independent
New-Foundland got colony again
1933
1935
India got self-government
1941
"Atlantic Charter"
India got independent; division in India and Pakistan
1947
1956
nationalization
of Suez Canal
Sudan became independent
1958
1960
Cyprus became independent
Malta became independent
1964
1966
Barbados became independent
return from Aden
1967
1982
Canada became completely free
END OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE: 1997
THE FALL OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
-reasons
changes/significant legacies
classification of territories
From Empire to Commonwealth
-consequences were:
rebellion
desire for autonomy
independence
-to prevent break up of British Empire:
Britain developed the Commonwealth
December 1931
reasons for occupying colonies:
area of settlement
army
economy
situation in the colonies:
slavery
oppression
discrimination
less participation
Commonwealth of Nations
General facts
traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good
December 1931 founded
intergovernmental organization
53 member states
GB and Northern Ireland
their former territories
head: Queen Elizabeth II
area > 31,500,000 km2
combined population of 2.1 billion people
member states
criteria
general rule: to have a direct constitutional link to an existing member
be full sovereigh states
accept English language
recognize the Queen as the head of commonwealth
accept and comply as the Harare principles
founding and history
1884: British Empire denoted as British Commonwealth of Nations
1926 Britain and its dominions agreed they were equal in status
1931: Ireland, Newfoundland, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa joined
after World War II "British" was dropped from
1949: begin of modern Commonwealth
1971: First Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM)
Some other interesting things
sources
important factors for the rise of the British Empire (B.E.)
strong political & military influence throughout the wolrd
focus on colonies, not Europe
success in wars
fast expansion
strong navy
large network of sea routes (trade = most influential motivation of colonization)
WHY EXPANSION:
gain more authority & power around world -> economics, politics and religion
reasons for colonization: provide the country with resources
=units of overseas territory controlled by British Government / organizations / individuals coming from Britain
Company Rule
= private companies; capitalised from Britain; tried to set up their own colonies as private commercial concerns
Colonies
= areas directly ruled by a governor on behalf of the British government and representing the Crown
; most common form of imperial control
Protectorates
= territories where the local rulers could continue ruling domestically but they had ceded the foreign and defence aspects of their government to the British
Dominions
= colonies that were granted significant freedom to rule themselves
Mandates
= set up after World War I as German and Turkish colonies were passed to Britain and France to prepare for self government on behalf of the League of Nations
social development in colonies -> independent movements
suppression of Native´s culture & religion
impact of WW II
War of Independence
expansion had resulted in difficulties
"Imperial System"
driving on left side of the road
Commonwealth
English = official language in many countries
white dominance in numerous countries of the world
GB: Queen = head of state
Full transcript