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WWII: Causes, Course & Outcome

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jennifer isbell

on 11 March 2013

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Transcript of WWII: Causes, Course & Outcome

WWII:
Causes,Course
& Outcome From Blitzkrieg to
the Atomic Bomb The Treaty of Versailles Rise of Harmful Political Ideas Fascism in Italy First developed by Mussolini (1919)
Political system calling for extreme nationalism & racism
1-party state/no tolerance for opposition
Totalitarian leader-no personal freedoms & no free press (secret police)
NOT a classless society Fascism in Japan Japanese Militarists
Hideki Tojo-General & Prime Minister
Emperor Hirohito-viewed like a God Nazism: Germany's
Brand of Fascism Adolf Hitler
Rise of the National Socialist German Workers (Nazis-German Fascists)
Beer Hall Putch (1923)-attempt to overthrow govnt.-Jail time
Mein Kampf
1932 election (Hitler vs. Hindenburg): Hindenburg elected president, then dies in 1934
1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor, unites offices
der Furher (leader) Failed Attempts of International Cooperation Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928: League of Nations tried to decrease tension by making members of the League promise not to go to war
US, USSR & Germany were not a part of the League of Nations Economic Depression & other Domestic Distractions 1929 Stock Market Crash in US
20% Unemployment in Germany
Inflation & Hyperinflation
Germany's war debt (reparations)
Dawes Act
Japan hit hard by the Great Depression Appeasement France & Great Britain decided to follow this policy of accepting Hitler's demands to avoid conflict &keep world peace
Give in to Germany's aggression & ignoring of the Versailles Treaty 1919: Weimar Republic formed a democratic government-unstable
War Guilt Clause
Can't build up military & territories taken
Led to the rise of Adolf Hitler Aggression by Italy, Japan & Germany Italy-Restore Italy to the Glory of the Roman Empire, 1935: invasion of Ethiopia
Japan-expansion viewed as necessary for survival, lack of natural resources, 1931: take over of Manchuria (China), 1937: Japan builds larger army, 1937: Rape of Nanking
Germany-1936: reclaimed Rhineland, 1938: took over Austria, 1938: invasion of Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) Isolationism Invasion of Poland 1939:Non-aggression pact signed by Germany & USSR so Hitler could take over Poland w/o Soviet interference
September 1, 1939:Blitzkrieg (lightening war-hard & fast)
1-Luftwaffe (air force), 2-Panzers (tanks), 3-infantry & light mechanized forces (motorbikes/armored cars)
create panic among civilian population
Britain & France declare war on Germany-WWII begins Dunkirk May 26, 1939: "operation dynamo"
German offensive on group of French & British troops that were separated from main army
May 27: evacuation begins and continues through June 4th
328,226 British, French, Belgian, & Dutch troops were evacuated
over 1 million POWs captured by Germans Fall of France "Case Yellow:" German offensive to break through the Maginot Line
Netherlands & Belgium fall to Nazi control
June 22, 1940: France signs armistice w/Germany & now occupied by the Nazis
Vichy France-Petain
Rebel France-DeGaulle Battle of Britain July 10-Oct 31, 1940: German Luftwaffe attacks Britain by air
German Messcherschmitt fighters & Junkers dive bombers vs. RAF Spitfire & Hurricanes
Sept 7: The blitz begins-Bombing of London
Day raids become night raids
continues for 57 straight days
Eventually Nazi's give up on the hope to invade Great Britain Operation Barbarossa June 22, 1941: Germany invades Russia, its former ally
largest military attack in WWII
Blitzkrieg
by day 17: 300,000 Russians captured, 2,500 tanks, 1,400 artillery guns & 250 aircraft captured or destroyed
Russian army devastated but the weather proved to be a huge problem for the Nazis & saved Moscow Siege of Leningrad September 9, 1941-Jan 18, 1943: Leningrad under siege by the Nazi Army
Long & destructive Battle of Stalingrad July 17, 1942-Feb 2, 1943
Bloodiest battle in human history
Casualty estimates: 1,530,000 killed, captured, wounded Battle of Normandy June 6, 1944: D-Day "Operation Overlord"-the Allied invasion of Normandy
156,000 allied troops landed on 5 beaches
By August Paris was liberated from Nazi rule Battle of the Bulge December 16, 1944-Jan 28, 1945
Last German offensive of WWII through the Ardennes Forest V-E Day April 30, 1945: Hitler commits suicide
May 7, 1945: Germany surrenders to Western Allies at Reims
May 9, 1945: Germany surrenders to the Soviets in Berlin
The war in Europe is OVER!!! The War in Europe War in the Pacific Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 "Day of Infamy"
6am-183 Japanese aircraft take-off for an attack
7:10am- 167 aircraft take-off in the 2nd wave
7:48am-Pearl Harbor is under attack
Japanese were successful in accomplishing their principal mission, which was to cripple the Pacific Fleet
December 8, 1941: US declares war on Japan Invasion of the Philippines December 10, 1941
December 23, 1941: American General MacArthur withdraws from Manila to Bataan
Battle of Bataan lasts 3 months
April 9, 1942: Bataan Death March-75,000 Filipino & American troops surrender to Japanese & POWs forced to march 90 miles Doolittle Raid April 18, 1942: US AirRaid w/B-25 bombers on Japanese cities
psychological victory for the US but little damage done Battle of Coral Sea May 4-8, 1942: 1st battle of aircraft carriers
1st naval battle where neither side saw the other ship
considered 1st US victory of the war Battle of Midway June 4-7, 1942: Japanese code broke, major naval battle
US victory/turning point Pacific Strategy Island hopping: US offensive strategy of WWII
Goal: bypass strongly defended islands & capture weaker islands leading to japan.
Establish a line of bases for supplying troops & air support close to Japan
Stall Japan while Allies fight in Europe Battle of Guadalcanal Aug7, 1942-Feb9, 1943
1st major US offensive
Ground, sea & air battle
US victory Battle of Leyte Gulf Largest naval battle of WWII
Kamikaze attacks
US victory Battle of Iwo Jima Feb. 19-March 26, 1945
1st american attack on Japanese home islands
Iwo Jima was heavily fortified
Heavy US casualties but still US victory Battle of Okinawa April 1-June 21 1945
largest amphibious assault of WWII (pacific)
Goal: capture Okinawa to then launch for invasion of mainland Japan
Around 2,000 kamikaze attacks
Last battle of the Pacific; US victory Leaders of WWII Germany-Adolf Hitler
Italy-Benito Mussolini
Japan-Hideki Tojo (Prime Minister)/Emperor Hirohito
Russia-Joseph Stalin
France-Charles DeGaulle
Great Britain-Neville ChamberlainWinston Churchill
USA-Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR)/Harry Truman Spanish Civil War 1936-39:Francisco Franco-Nationalists(fascist) vs. Republicans
1937: Bombing of Guernica The Home Front Women in WWII
welders, electricians, mathematicians and riveters
Total War
Rationing
Victory Gardens & war bonds
Conservation & Recycling: the glycerin in kitchen fats=gunpowder; lipstick tubes contained brass=cartridges; tin cans=building ships; blades steel=machine guns; nylon stockings=parachutes. WWII Propaganda All countries will use propaganda
American Propaganda-music & movies
Germany: Joseph Gobbells
Hitler Youth
May 1933: Burning of the Books Manhattan Project authorized by FDR in 1941
project to develop the 1st atomic bomb
J.Robert Oppenheimer
1st test: July 16, 1945
Little Boy (uranium-235) & Fat Man (Plutonium-239)
Hiroshima-August 6, 1945: The Enola Gay dropped "Little Boy"-90,000-120,000 deaths
Nagasaki-August 9, 1945: Bock's Car dropped "Fat Man"-60,000-80,000 deaths Invasion of Japan Drop Atomic Bombs August 14, 1945: Statement issued to Japan from
Emperor Hirohito: "Moreover, the enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with the power to destroy many innocent lives and do incalculable damage. Should we continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization. Such being the case, how are we to save the millions of our subjects, or to atone ourselves before the hallowed spirits of our imperial ancestors? This is the reason why we have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration
of the Powers." V-J Day August 15, 1945: Japanese announce surrender
September 2, 1945: Official surrender ceremony
Surrender signed on board the USS Missouri Japanese-American Internment Japanese in America
Issei: immigrants
Nisei: 1st generation born in America
After Pearl Harbor Japanese are viewed w/distrust
Lt. Gen. John DeWitt leads the charge to isolate Japanese as potential traitors, spies, threats to security
Jan6, 1942: Joint Immigration Committee publishes manifesto against ethnic Japanese
Claims: all Japanese are loyal to Emperor Hirohito, accused Japanese language schools of teaching racial superiority
Feb19, 1942: Executive Order 9066: Japanese located & imprisoned
Step 1-No japanese can live on the West Coast
Step 2-Assets frozen
Step 3-8pm-6am curfew
Step 4-sent to 'Relocation Center" December 1944:
Supreme Court Rules detainment
is unconstitutional The Holocaust History of Anti-Semitism
1935: Nuremberg Laws
Ghettos
Dachau-1st concentration camp
Others attacked: The Roma, Homosexuals, Mixed races, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mentally/Physically disabled, Political dissenters (communists)
1933-35:T-4 Program-Euthenasia/involuntary sterilization
1933-39: Jews (who can) leave Germany
Nov9, 1938: Kristallnacht
Jan 20, 1942: Wannsee Conference-"Final Solution"
1944-45: Liberation War in Africa Outcome, Effects & Costs The Allies win
Russia-Western Russia devastated, large & powerful army, occupied most of Eastern Europe, emerge as world Super Power
Great Britain-
US-emerge as world Super Power
The Axis powers lose
Germany-Nazi regime crumbles, Hitler commits suicide, Nuremberg Trials, Cities in ruins, Divided into 4 occupied zones
Japan-Devastated from bombing, military leaders tried and convicted of war crimes, emperor allowed to retain his position, temporarily under US military rule
Potsdam Conference (Germany)-peace treaties
territory losses, reparations
Roots of the Cold War stop & discuss! #1 stop & discuss! #2 Stop & Discuss! #3 Italian Fascism ...continue watching on your own Great Videos to Watch: 1. The Rise of Hitler: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=8474 2. WWII: How did it Start? http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9904 3. Which countries fought? http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9918 4. Attack on Pearl Harbor: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=8973 5. Tactics, Weapons & The Holocaust: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9920 6. Important Battles: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9917 7. The Camps: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=10884 8. Nuclear Bombings of Japan: http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9804 9. WWII: How did it End? http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9928 10. WWII: The Aftermath http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=9930 Why We Fight? WWII Propaganda & Comic Book Covers Guernica (1937) by: Pablo Picasso
http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TTQ05090/vika/vikasite/meanguer.htm Belief mainly in the US that political ties to other countries should be avoided
1935: 3 Neutrality Acts banning loans and the sale of arms to nations at war
USSR showed isolationist ideals, too What else was going on in Europe? Stop & Discuss #4 Battle of Wake Island Dec 8-23, 1941
began simultaneously with the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Japanese victory Military campaigns btwn. Sept 13, 1940 & May 13, 1943
Axis powers wanted to cut off Allies access to Middle East, Asia & Africa
Western Desert Campaign, Operation Torch, Tunisia Campaign
German General Erwin Rommel "desert fox" led the Afrika Korps
US General George Patton led Allies Stop & Discuss #5 stop & discuss #6 What else was going on? Stop & Discuss #7 Propaganda about Internment Camps "It's a ticklish sort of job making a thing for a thing-ummy-bob
Especially when you don't know what it's for
But it's the girl that makes the thing that drills the hole
that holds the spring that works the thing-ummy-bob
that makes the engines roar.
And it's the girl that makes the thing that holds the oil
that oils the ring that works the thing-ummy-bob
that's going to win the war." Timeline
http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-1930s-a-decade-of-aggression What do you see? British Hurricane British Spitfire German Messcherschmitts German Junkers Sniper Rifles of WWII:
http://www.militaryfactory.com/smallarms/ww2-sniper-rifles.asp any book, “which acts subversively on our future or strikes at the root of German thought, the German home and the driving forces of our people...” was to be burnt To see a complete list of planes created during this time visit:
http://www.militaryfactory.com/aircraft/ww2-aircraft.asp
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