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The Toulmin Argument
Transcript of The Toulmin Argument
1. What are the six stages of the Toulmin argument?
2. What are the three most absolutely necessary stages?
3. What is the difference between the qualifier and the rebuttal?
4. Is there a certain order of the six stages you should have for presenting the Toulmin argument? Explain.
Contribution to Rhetoric
What is the Toulmin Argument?
The Toulmin Theory of Argumentation proposes that an argument consists of six components: the claim, grounds, warrant, backing, qualifier, and rebuttal. While they do not necessarily appear in a specific order in an argument, they all work together to reveal the strengths and weaknesses of the argument.
The Grounds are the facts, reasons, or evidence used in the argument to support the claim.
The qualifiers are statements that provide a condition for which the claim is true, thus limiting the strength of the argument.
The warrants are the statements that provide a chain of reason that connects the grounds to the claim.
The backing consists of reasons and support for the warrant, although it doesn't always support the claim directly.
Rebuttals counter the claim using counter-examples that often relate to the qualifier.
The claim is the point the argument seeks to prove. This can be the thesis of an essay.
Toulmin's Model of Argumentation
Brandon Andrews, Daniel Lee, Ellis Douma, Fred Valencia
Application to Writing
Using the Toulmin model of argumentation as a model/utility for your writing is ideal, as it can be modified to fit any audience.
The Toulmin Model helps you to portray your point effectively, and formulate a superior argument in your writing.
Toulmin's Model in Action
Prezi is the best power point for school projects.
Students need an efficient and practical system where they can display their information and images in a power point, as well as present it in the best and most colorful way possible.
1. You are able to efficiently be the director by being able to freely zoom around the digital canvas for presenting your ideas.
2. Users are able to work on the project with other group members at the same time.
3. Users are able to add decorations and color to the whole canvas, and customize the power point slide's shapes the way they like.
1. Students are expected by their instructors to provide a brilliant-looking and colorful PowerPoint instead of just simply writing and presenting their normal information and images.
2. As technology has grown, the normal Power Point is seen as weak and lacking due to its one dimensional format and other confinements. It is needing improvement to keep up with the demands of our century.
1. The Prezi is not necessarily a revolution in presentation; however, it can provide a preferable contemporary alternative to generic power point presentations, which are technologically not inferior in any way.
On certain projects where there is small amount of information to explain, a simple PowerPoint with a one dimensional format could be more effective. A simple PowerPoint could also be better than Prezi when the audience is a professional group that requires a less complex and less colorful canvas: for example, presenting to your boss and fellow workers at an accounting job.
Old cars should be banned from the streets. (claim) Old cars pollute the environment, and accelerate the depletion of the ozone layer (evidence). Eliminating out-dated cars from the streets would result in cleaner air, and replenish the polluted environment. (warrant). However, not all old cars are necessarily completely bad (rebuttal). Some old cars have customization capabilities, and can thus be made cleaner to meet current automobile standards. Therefore, in conclusion, most old cars should receive limited access to the streets. (qualifier).”
Stephen Toulmin was born March 25, 1922. He attended Cambridge, then became a lecturer at Oxford. In 1958 he published The Uses of Argument, which was poorly recieved in Britain, however, was well recieved elsewhere, and Toulmin began to lecture in the United States. It was in The Uses of Argument that Toulmin developed his method of argumentation.