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Astronomy 8A- Andrew Choi, Matthew Nam, Douglas Chang, David Lee

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Andrew Choi

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Transcript of Astronomy 8A- Andrew Choi, Matthew Nam, Douglas Chang, David Lee

Composition Astronomy What is Astronomy?
What do we know about Astronomy? The Universe The Universe's Big Timeline 13.7 Billion Years Ago The Big Bang ... and the universe is created All matters in our universe came from the Big Bang How do we know? Hubble's Law-
The velocity (speed) of galaxies is proportional to its distance- 70.8 ± 4.0 (km/s)/Mpc (The parament of how fast the universe is expanding) Commonly known as the red shift or doppler's affect

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovery
The Universe is expanding in every direction.
Detected CMB (reminant) radiation from all over the sky. What came after? ATOMS For atoms to form...
The perfect environment and fundamental forces
1. Gravity- Fg = Gm1m2/r^2
2. Electromagnetic Force- F=ke1e2/r2,
3. Weak Nuclear Force
4. Strong Nuclear Force These include
Temperature
Amount of Force The Human Exploration Timeline 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggests that the Earth revolves around the Sun 240 B.C. Eratosthenes measures the circumfrence of the surface of Earth ~2000 B.C. First solar-lunar calendars in
Egypt and Mesopotamia 130 B.C. The first acccurate star map and star catalogue (over 850 stars) is developed by Hipparchus 140 A.D. 0 Ptolemy comes up with the theory that the Earth is at the center of the universe
(a.k.a. geocentric universe) 1120 A.D. First observatory built in current day Cairo, Egypt 1543 A.D. Copernicus publishes his theory that the Sun is in the middle of universe
(a.k.a. heliocentric theory) 1572 A.D. Supernova in constellation of Cassiopeia found by Tycho Brahe 1608 A.D. Hans Lippershey invents the refracting telescope 1609 A.D. Galileo discovers 4 Jovian moons, the Moon's craters and the Milky Way galaxy Kepler's First and Second Laws of Planetary Motions are announced. 1668 A.D. The first reflecting telescope is invented by Newton 1687 A.D. Newton publishes his theory of universal gravitation 1781 A.D. Messier discovers galaxies, nebula and star clusters while looking for comets. He makes a catalogue of these objects not to be confused with comets (Messier catalogue) 1842 A.D. Discovery of the 'Doppler Effect' by Christian Doppler 1846 A.D. Johann Galle observes and discovers Neptune 1905 A.D. The Mount Wilson Observatory is constructed- first observatory to study the Sun 1911-4 A.D. Hertzsprung and Russel introduce the H-R diagram 1931 A.D. Karl Jansky discovers cosmic radio waves- leads to light spectrm 1937 A.D. First radio telescope built by Grote Reber 1957 A.D. Russians launch Sputnik, the first object to orbit Earth 1961 A.D. Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space 1969 A.D. Armstrong and Aldrin walk on the Moon in Apollo 11 mission 1974 A.D. The first image of Mercury is transmitted by the U.S. Mariner 10 probe 1980 A.D. U.S. Voyager Shuttle obtains information of Uranus and Jupiter 1980 A.D. The space shuttle Challenger disaster happens 1990 A.D. Hubble Space Telescope put into orbit from space shuttle "Discovery" 1995 A.D. Galileo space probe reaches Jupiter 1998 A.D. The "Lunar Prospector" reaches the Moon 1999 A.D. Chandra X-ray Observatory is put into orbit; Col. Eileen Collins becomes first woman shuttle commander 2000 A.D. Space Shuttle Endeavor makes a detailed, global map of Earth The NEAR spacecraft reaches asteroid Eros 2011 A.D. The class of 2015 learns science in Mr. Algar's class :) What is the big bang?
One of the many theories of how the universe was creatd
An expansion of the universe from a single point called "singularity" BY: Andrew Choi, David Lee, Douglas Chang, Matthew Nam Thank You for watching Misconceptions
Big Bang wasn't an explosion
Did not occur within space, but space was inside the singularity During 3~20 minutes after the Big Bang, these factors of the environment came to be legitment for nucleosynthesis. Creating nuclei (positively charged) 377,000 years later Temperature and Density of the universe decrease
enabling nucleis to interact with electrons to form the first
ATOMS (neutral) What caused the world to happen? Was it God? Cosmology- Study of the origins, structure and future of the unvirse
Lack of evidence and very speculative HOWEVER...
There are still evidence that supports the theory of cosmology. Atoms form to become particles Adding on to these particles, dark matter and condensed gas attracted by a gravitational pull of primordial fluctuation, form the seeds of galaxies

primordial fluctuation- density variations in regions of the space Within in these proto-galaxies were gas (nebulae).
Nebulae starts to clump together by gravity and forms the first stars.

Nebulae- Clouds of space dust. Flatness/oldness problem We don't know what the shape of the Universe is like Fortunately, the unvirse had a Matter dominance Big Bang Characteristics of the Big Bang 10^-43 seconds after the big bang, temp. is T=10^32K
Singularity- infinite density and zero volume due to gravity
Held "space" within the singularity assymetry broken Galaxy type Spiral galaxies Barred spiral galaxies Elliptical galaxies Irregular galaxies Shapes are irregular and unconsistent
Located near Large Spiral Galaxies
*Might have distorted the shape Most commonly known galaxies
Bulge at the center with spiral arms
*Spiral arms made out of dust, gas, and new stars 1/3 of all galaxies take this form of a blob
Stretched out or clumped together
Bright centers with very little dust and gas
New stars rarely form Spiral galaxies with bars that go through the center
Sub category of the spiral arms
The bars affect the motion of the stars and the spiral arms Depending on the density of matter and energy in the universe Very hot initially, because of matter and antimatter colliding with each other creating energy. The Different views of the Universe Objects Outside of Our Solar System 10^-6 seconds after the Big Bang- universe is formed Planets and Moons Asteroids Universe- Everything that exists Note: refracting telescopes have limitations, such as limitations in length, and the lens size. What is the Universe composed of?
4%: Proportion that is Hydrogen and Helium
25%: Proportion that is dark matter
70%: Proportion that is dark energy
0.5% Proportion that is stars
0.3% Proportion that is Neutrinos and other heavier elements Note: The reflecting telescopes has more than one focal points, allowing it to becompact. It has no limitations which refracting telescopes had. Note: the radio telescopes can create images of galaxies which are too far away for the aided human eye to see. Dark Energy Bodies of rock that orbit the sun
Sizes vary (pebble to diameter of 1000 km)
Located in the Main Asteroid Belt: between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Some have potential of colliding with Earth Has a negative pressure
being so condensed, weakens the gravitational pull, thus fastening the universe's expansion rate Costellation and Stars Stars- Glowing balls of plasma Costellation- Groups of stars that create a pattern or picture in the sky (General)
An internationally assigned area of the celestial sphere (Astronomical) Chemistry
Life
*Sun Why are stars important? Celestial Sphere- a 3 dimentional coordinate plane of the earth's sky
Plasma- 4th state of matter created when gas is heated in extreme temperature Size of Stars very
Depending on density
High density= hot
Low density= cool Physical Characteristics

Blue Supergiant

Constellalation- Orion

Radius- 78R

Mass- 17M

Temperature- 11,000K

Luminosity- 66,000(bolometric)L (85,000xSun)

Absolute Magnitude- −6.7

Distance- 773 light-years Astronomial Unit
1 AU= Sun's characteristic Physical Characteristics


Surface Area- 6.0877×10^12km2 (11,990×Earth)

Volume- 1.412×10^18km3 (1,300,000×Earth)

Mass- 1M (1.9891×10^30 kg) (333,000×Earth)
T
emperature- 5,770 K

Luminosity- 1L (3.846×1026 W)

Density- 1.622×10^5 kg/m3

Absolute Magintude- +4.83

Distance- 8 min 19 s at light speed Mass- 5.9736×10^24 kg Physical Characteristics

Hyper Giant

Constellalation-Canis Major

Radius- ~1800~2100R

Mass- 30~40M

Surface Area- 510,072,000 km2

Luminosity- 450,000L

Temperature- ~3000K

Absolute Magnitude- −9.4

Density- 0.000005~0.000010 kg/m3

Distance- 4,900 light-years James Bradely comes up with the idea of stellar parallax 1725 A.D. Note: the Stellar parallax is the difference of directions when viewed from two different viewpoints. If the object moves more than the other background stars, it is closer to the observer. (combined with human Exploration) How Long Do These Star Live? Depends on how fast the star burns Lifespan of a star with the mass of the Sun is about 10 billion years. What are these stars made out of? How does it affect the Star? The ingredient of a star is the nebula Mostly Hydrogen and Helium
Miniscules of other elements affect the star + + = + = Bread What are the ingredients of a star? Nebulae are composed of Hydrogen gas and Helium gas and other ionized gases Influences of Compostion
Luminosity
Temperature
Size
Life Span Requirements in Astronomy Hydrogen- 73.46%
Helium- 24.85%
Oxygen- 0.77%
Carbon- 0.29%
Iron- 0.16%
Neon- 0.12%
Nitrogen- 0.09%
Silicon- 0.07%
Magnesium- 0.05%
Sulfur- 0.04% How do you become an astronaut? How do you become an astronomer? there are no age limits
surgery for better vision is allowed (LASIK, etc.)
An astronaut candidate needs to go through years of intense training (non- gravity simulations, take-off simulations, swimming in deep water to do pressure simulation) in order to become an astronaut
no military flight experience required must be interested in the field of astronomy
must be strong in physics and chemistry in high school year (and at least B)
there are different astronomers- you can choose what specific field you are going to cover "Metal" Where does nebulae come from? Big Bang Recycled by
Supernova or dead stars As the materials get recycled
New and heavier elements form
called metals
Metals (astronomy)- elements that are heavier than hydrogen or helium Composition 99.88% Hydrogen and Helium
0.12% Metals Note: Different types of satellites
9 types of satellites exist
astronomy satellites- for studies
atmospheric satellites-study atmosphere
communication satellites-used in radio waves, telephone waves, TV waves
navigation satellites- sends GPS, etc
Reconnaissance satellites-used for spying
remote sensing satellites-monitoring resources
Search and rescue satellites-used for sending info about ppl who needs help
space exploration satellites
weather satellites- used for exploration Hybrid Cars or Diesel Fueled Cars
Hydrogen and Helium easier to fuse
Same element being fused
Different elements being fused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The View of Stars . . Note: The H-R diagram shows how the characteristics of stars are related- it helped astronomers with the stars' life cycles and their categories. The view of the sky from an observatory Pinwheel Galaxy
Distance- 23.4 ± 2.2 Mly NGC 1427A
Distance- 51.9+5.3
−4.7 Mly NGC 1300
Distance 61.3 Mly Elliptical Galaxy M87
Distances-53.5 ± 1.63 Mly How are these galaxies classified and ordered? Messier Catalog Hubble classification scheme . . . . . . A rebellion begins in Jerusalem, led by Simeon Ben Kosiba, while a Taoist church called "The Way of the Great Masters" was founded by Zhangling. WHat was happening in the World???
(Link to History) Mercury
Diameter : 4878
Mass : 3.3022e24
Moons: 2
Sun : 46 million km
Composition : Iron Core
Atmosphere : Mostly Hydrogen, Hellium, Oxygen
Temp : 800 ~ -280 degrees Farenheit
Quality for Life : Scientist believe there can not be any life from Earth
Orbit : every 88 days.
Time to Rotate: 58.6 days

 Venus
Diameter : 12,100 km.
Temperature : 900 ~ -50 degrees Farenheit
Atmosphere : Carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen, sulfuric acid, and traces of other elements
Day : 243 Earth days (1 Venusian Day)
Orbit : 225 Earth days
Magnetic Field: No
Mass : 4.87e24
Moons: No moons
From Sun : 109 million km
composition : Sulfur
Atmosphere : Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen French astronomer Charles Messier
was a comet hunter. However he was easily confused with comets and other objects in space. Made a table of 110 objects including nebulae, star clusters, and galaxies. Well known for observing beautiful objects and far-distant objects. Galaxy morphological classification
Classifying galaxies according to its appearance Earth
Diameter: 12,800 km.
Atmosphere: Mainly nitrogen 78.084% Nitrogen,  20.946% Oxygen. The other small parts include Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, Hydrogen, Methane.
Moon : 1
Earth Year : 365 days
Earth Day : 24 hours
Temperature : 58 ~ -69 degress Celcius
From Sun : 149,597,870 km
Mass : 5.98 x1024 kg
Composition : Iron, Sulfur, Nickel We are not the center of the Universe
The Earth rotates
And Stars are not in the same distance Mars
Moons: 2
Temperature: -140 ~ 20 degrees Celcius
Year: About 1 Earth-year and ten and a half months
Diameter : 6796 Kms (4223 Miles)
mass : 0.64e24
Composition: Iron
Atmosphere : carbon dioxide, nitrogen
Qualities for life : Oxygen and Water Stars Life Cycle Thus, a stellar parallax happens Stars that are farther away seem to be moving slowly
Stars that are closer seem to move faster
The different views and location of the star according to where you see the star on Earth https://docs.google.com/document/d/1G1dVRcQCwxX5cHBP4QxaLeRskLbtG0H0I4s1EuVXECk/edit?hl=en# Check out the comet hunter Yuji Hyakutake: Comets Bodies of rock, ice, and dust
Located in the Kuiper Belt: beyond orbit of Neptune, full of comets, rocks, and dust
Other comets are located in an orbit near the sun The Structure of Comets
Nucleus: the main body of a comet, a ball of rock and ice
Coma: the atmosphere of water and dust around the nucleus
Dust Tail: tail of dust in a comet
Ion Tail: tail of plasma in a comet
Meteor: the light given off from the tails when sunlight reaches them Nebula starts to clump in as gravity pulls in these dust particles Jupiter
Diameter : 142,800 km
Mass: 1,898e24
Moons: 63
From Sun: 817 million km
Composition: Rocky
Atmosphere : Narrow
Temperature: about -150o C
Qualities for life: Water Saturn
Diameter: 120,660 km
Temperature: –178°C
Atmosphere: Hydrogen and helium
Surface: consists of liquid and gas.
Rotation of its axis: 10 hours, 40 min, 24 sec
Orbit : 29.5 Earth years
mass: 568.5x1024 kg
Moons : 62
From Sun: 1.5 billion km
Composition: Iron, Nickel, Oxygen
Qualities for life: Oxygen, Ground, Water Uranus
Diameter: 51,500 km (32,000 miles)
Temperature: -197.15 C
Orbit: Takes 84 years
Distance: 2,870,972,200 km
Moons: 27
Period of Rotation: 17.24 hours (retrograde: spins backwards compared to most other planets)
Mass: 86.8e24
Composition: Hellium, Hydrogen
Qualities for life: Water, Ground, Oxygen Neptune
Moons : 8
Year: 164.8 Earth-years
Distance from the Sun: 4,500 million kilometers
Length of Day: 16.11 hours, 0.67 Earth-day
diameter: 49,500 kilometers
Atmospheric components: 74% hydrogen, 25% helium, 1% methane
Qualities for Life : Water, Nitrogen As the clump gets larger, the gravitational pull gets stronger, causing friction (heat)
Compression and Heat=Nuclear Fusion (Hydrogen => Helium) Nebulae Protostars Star starts to burn plasma and release energy
Longest persiod in the cycle Main-Sequence stars Helium fuses into carbon
Outer layers expand Red Giant Massive Stars
Above 10 solar masses Core runs out of fuel and the outerlayer
come off as gaseous shell, leaving a Planetary Nebula Core that is left behind (80%) becomes a white dwarf and cools off as a black dwarf. Similar to the Main-Sequence star and red giant transition, the hydrogen fuses into helium
Helium-core with expanding gas-
RED SUPER GIANT Million Years later, the core collapses in itself and explodes. Brighter than an entire galaxy. This is called SUPERNOVA 3 solar masses <
Black Holes 1.5-3 solar masses
Neutron Star (dense) How do we Classify these stars? H-R Diagram STAR STORIES
The Stars in the Sky
Adapted from Carolyn Sherwin Bailey, Kate Douglas
Wiggin, and Nora Archibald Smith

http://www.essentia.com/book/stories/skystar.htm Plank epoch Inflationary epoch- space expands dramatically Between 3 mintues and 20 minutes
Nuclei formed (positive) Matter domination First Atom 377,000 First Stars and Galaxies forming during this period 150 Million to 1 Billion years ago Meteroites Parts of planets, asteroids, comets that have or will hit Earth
History and origin of meteorites is very unclear
Meteorites affect Earth in many ways: environment, ecosystem By: David Lee 8A For Further Info. about stars, follow the link below: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1G1dVRcQCwxX5cHBP4QxaLeRskLbtG0H0I4s1EuVXECk/edit?hl=en Flash Video showing Aristarchus' suggestion Oort Cloud Oort Clouds
A cloud surrounding many solar systems including ours
Is about 30 trillion km away from the sun
Full of comets trillions of km away from each other
The total mass of the comets in the Oort cloud together is 40 times the mass of Earth.
Only a theory Planets and the Sun: The 8 planets go around the Sun as Kepler's Law of planetary motion Planets and the Moon: The moons act like a satellite of the planets and go around the planets The Birth of our Sun 5 Billion years ago 3.8 billion years ago Earliest life forms form 700 million years ago Latest Primative life forms Note: Solar and Lunar calendars
a lunar calendar is based upon the time it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth
a solar calendar is based upon the time it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun. Citations for Human Exploration Timeline and Section: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1HoLTUphEUosy4sSUsGWjg5XCvxDER2Wi4D_BAG-JQhc/edit?hl=en# 200 million years ago mammals evolve 65million years ago dinosaurs are extinct 600,000 Years ago homo sapiens evolve 170,000 years ago supernova 1987 explodes Years after the Big Bang Years before the 1st Millennium Bibliography
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wOSinLyEO2jUWANdkDztzJt1zC3WxgO1gL5GNRlmYAE/edit?hl=en Constellation
Astronomers divide the night sky into 88 different sections Watch the video in the following site for more comparisons http://lang-8.com/156719/journals/617870/Beyond-an-imagination-%253A-The-largest-known-star%252C-VY-Canis-Majoris By relating the luminosity to the spectral type, temperature, and relative brightness compared to the Sun, graphs of Danish astronomer, Ejnar Hertzsprung and American astronomer, Henry Norris Russell (created separately) have created a diagram called the H-R diagram (Hertzsprung-Russell diagram), followed by the name of the two astronomers Citations for Constellation and Stars https://docs.google.com/document/d/1PdsmhgdWyQzBAMSZh2mquwWuHUN90SKofb1p9xnecS4/edit?hl=en# Not an explosion Bibliography:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ajYfdvU07jKj_zWzZau0nDidGIzMH0hXEw_WoEGPto0/edit?hl=en# Edmund Halley:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Vw8wDtpEDwGySXA53EguZ3vXV13-T7md2EqEetfbVxc/edit?hl=en# Black and White Holes:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1YjhUYrG3CT-Rzi0aZD0lsHkhhI74v61oig1xxZr_cs8/edit?hl=en# Citations for Universe https://docs.google.com/document/d/1mnBUh9FaXlOTr-oGzamurGFdTcoVX4amIDbiwt5BCHg/edit?hl=en# Thank You For Watching
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