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Business Motivation Theorise

Taylor, Maslow, McGregor, Herzberg, Mayo and McLelland
by

Emily Wang

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Business Motivation Theorise

MOTIVATION = the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that stimulate people to take actions that lead to achieving a goal
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION = comes from satisfaction from doing work
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION = comes from external rewards associated with working on a task e.g. pay Business Motivation Nan, Nai, Emily Motivation Taylor's Theory Economic man Use workers’ questionnaires
1. “Those factors that led to them having very good feelings about their jobs”
JOB SATISFACTION: MOTIVATORS
Achievement
Recognition
the work
Responsibility
Promotion (advancement) Maslow's hierarchy Limitations Not everyone has the same needs as are assumed by the hierarchy.
Difficult to identify the degree to which each need has been met and which level each employee is on
Money also play a role in satisfying the other levels of needs.
Self-actualization is never permanently achieved About his theory How to improve productivity AIM: reduce inefficiency
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Recording performances
Analysis of performance
Altering working methods Select workers to perform task
Observe performance – note elements
Record time taken
Identify quickest method recorded
Train workers quickest method – no alterations!
Supervise workers – do quickest way, check time limit
Pay workers base on results (economic man) Motivation stimulated by chance of extra money
Only factor
Piece rate:
Wage level = output McGregor's
theory X &theory Y Significance Unmotivated Staff: Indicators of Unmotivated staff Well Motivated Staff Work efficiently: high productivity
Try to reach own personal goal Keen to stay in the firm = reduce staff turnover costs offering minimum Combination of non-financial and financial motivations is BEST McGregor did not state this but in extreme cases this theory X and Y will occur. Workers behave what managers believe them to be:
Manager believe in that their workers is X type:
no delegation of authority, close control
The staff: feel pressure and don’t enjoy work Herzberg's theory 2. “Those factors that led to them having very negative feelings about their jobs”
JOB DISSATISFACTION: HYGIENE FACTORS
Policy and administration (management)
Supervision
Salary
Relationships
Working conditions Consequences Consequences CONSEQUENCES 1. “Movement” – paying them
Expected
No motivation
*Motivators need to be in place* 2. Job enrichment: challenging
Complete units of work
Feedback - recognition
Range of tasks 3. Taken for granted
Higher pay, better working conditions etc.
Remove dissatisfaction
BUT
If not challenging -> unsatisfied, unmotivated
Motivators need to be in place MAYO!! Found by Elton Mayo The Human relations Theories The Hawthorne effect Assumption: “WORKING CONDITIONS (lighting, heating and rest periods etc) had significant effect on workers’ productivity” By testing on workers:
Other factors (changes in rest periods and payment systems etc) rather effect workers’ productivity BUT Conclusions of Mayo’s work:
Changes in working conditions and financial rewards = little or no productivity
Improve productivity:
Team working
Improve motivation:
Manager consulting and care
Controlling own working lives
Groups create own targets Mayo’s research for today’s business motivational needs theory McClelland!! Affiliation motivation
(n-affil) Achievement motivation
(n-ach) Authority or power motivation
(n-pow) People with the strong motivation need for achievement.
Reach realistic and challenging goals and job advancement people with dominant need
Desire to control others People with need for affiliation as the strongest driver or motivator has a need for friendly relationship and are motivated towards interaction with other people. A) ISC:
Paid highly
Didn't find the job rewarding
Special programming tasks – was not involved in designing complete software solution
Work alone
B) index:
Opportunity to take on more responsibility
Allow team member to take control of complete software solutions
Higher salary
Recognized talent and achievement
Work as a team member Team work:
Make worker feel involved
Good/better communication
Opinions
Better outcome/solution
less time Working in ISC = have very negative feelings
Working at Index = have very good feelings
ISC: Job dissatisfaction: hygiene factors
Salary = unrewarding
Relationships = no team work
Administration = unable to finish the whole project
Policy = work to tight deadlines
Working conditions = working alone on most tasks
Index: Job satisfaction: motivating factors
Responsibility = able to finish the project
Relationships = friendly workers
Recognition = team leader can see their potential
Advancement = appointed a team member
Salary = higher salary
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