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anastasia marcozzi

on 19 November 2013

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Psychology in Second Language Acquisition
Not only the discipline of linguistics has significantly influenced the study of SLA. Many approaches based on psychology have played an important role in the field of Second Language Acquisition.
Studying SLA with a psychological point of view means that we put emphasis on mechanism involved in the acquisition of a second Language, rather than on grammar formation,.
Approaches to second language learning
Connectionist/emergentist models
- Emphasis on usage
- Learners directly abstract regularities from the linguistic environment
- Learning seen as a network of interconnected exemplars and patterns (not rules)
- Unconscious associations between patterns of the input
Processing approaches
Knowledge Types
An example of connectionist model: THE COMPETITION MODEL
Speakers must have a way to determine relationships among elements in a sentence. Language processing involves competition among various cues, each of which contributes to a different resolution in sentence interpretation. It is important to underline that each language has different cue that can interpret sentences.

Can the learner use the cues of L1 to interpret sentences in the Target Language?

Practical examples
On our book there are some practical examples of competition in sentences. These patterns underline how different languages resolve the conflict in different ways.
The cows eat the grass English word order: SVO
Giovanna ha comprato il pane SVO
Joan has bought the bread

Allora, compro io il vino. VSO
Then buy I the wine

Ha comprato il vino Aldo VOS
Has bought the wine Aldo

No il vino l''ha comprato Antonella OVS
No the wine it (obj.) has bought Antonella

Watashi-wa wain-o kaimasu. (SOV)
I wine buy
"I buy the wine."

Kinou-wa eiga-o mimashita. (SOV)
Yesterday movie watched
“I watched movie yesterday.”
“It is yesterday that I watched the movie.”

Chuushoku-o watashi-wa tsukurimashita. (OSV)
Lunch I made
“I made lunch.”
“It is lunch that I made.”

Which is the word order in polish?
Do you use the same cues of your NL to interpret sentences in Second Language?
Which cues do you use?
In learning L2, your initial hipothesis was interpreting Target Language sentences in the same you interpret NL?
They are characterized by a concern with the processing mechanisms and capacities of the human brain and how those mechanisms and capacities operate when dealing within the context of second language learning
Processability theory
Information processing
Input processing
Learners treat second language forms through a LINGUISTIC PROCESSOR. It means that sentences of L2 are analyzed by learners through a processor that checks to see if parts of a sentence match. This process happens in different stages and thanks to various processing mechanisms. Usually learners start from analyzing single words or chunk with a canonical order strategy up to recognizing sentence and subordinate procedures.
Do you recognize this linguistic processor in your personal experiences?
Can you find in the chapter the definitions of those terms?
What kind of process is?

I am no go
No look
I am no run
No run

I am no go
No look
I am don't run
Don't run

I am no go
Don't look
I am don't run
Don't run

I am no go
Don't go
I am no run
Don't run
What kind of process is?
He is taking a cake

He take a cake

He is taking a cake

What kind of process is?
Prime Minister Mori: Who are you? (Instead of "How are you?")

President Clinton: I'm Hillary Clinton's husband

Prime Minister Mori: I am too

Have you ever lived this kind of experiences in your Second Language Acquisitions?

In the field of input processing the
focus is on how learners comprehend utterances and how they assign form-meaning relationship, rather than on what they do to anlyze sentences.
Two basic principles:
Can you find them?
How linguistic knowledge is acquired and organized in the brain?
- Acquisition - Learning

- Declarative - Procedural :
declarative knowledge refers to aspects as our word knowledge, pronunciation, meaning, it is accessible to conscious awareness. Differently, procedural knowledge relates to these cognitive skills that allow using language (it is relatively inaccessible)

- Implicit - Explicit:
what makes different implicit and explicit knowledge is the awareness

- Representation - Control:
Knowledge representation is the mental organization of our linguistic information. Control over that knowledge is the efficiency with which that information can be accessed
And which is the difference between
Psycholinguistics constructs
- Attention

- Working memory

- Monitoring
Can you give the definitions of these terms?
In your opinion is the attention more influent in acquisition or in learning?
In your opinion is the automaticity more frequent in acquisition or in learning?
Let's test your knowledge!
According to the connectionist model, learners make conscious associations between input patterns and they are aware of how they do.
Declarative knowledge is more accessible to conscious awareness than procedural knowledge
U-shaped learning is characterized by discontinuous, qualitative change as the learner moves from stage to stage in development
One of the principles of input processing says that learners process input for form before they process it for meaning
Working memory focuses on the manipulation of information rather than just the storage of information
According to Krashen there are three conditions for monitor use: Time, focus on form and automaticity
A second language learner will begin to acquire the target like form if and only if it is present in comprehended input ant "noticed" in the normal sense of the world, that is consciously.
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