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Transcript of Nutrition
CARE PREGNANCY OBESITY BARRIERS “...an approach which improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing life-threatening illness, through the prevention, assessment and treatment of pain and other physical, psychosocial and spiritual problems”.
•Quality of life
•A whole person approach
•Patient and family focussed
•Autonmoy & Choice
•Communication Hallenbeck (2003) Defines nutrition as a
means of sustaining life and of relieving
the suffering caused by hunger and
dehydration. what is Nutrition?
"Nutrition is the intake of food, considered in relation to the body’s dietary needs ".(WHO 2013) Good nutrition is an adequate well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. (WHO 2013) Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity (WHO 2013). HABITS Nutritional Challenges in Palliative Care Decreased absorption Altered energy utilization Decreased oral intake cachexia Xyrostomia Odynophagia / Dysphagia anorexia Weight gain is caused by the intake of more food (energy) than is necessary for day to day living. (Wiseman, 2002).
When excess energy is consumed it is stored as fat, which once stored can only be lost by using up more energy than is consumed. (Wiseman, 2002).
Obesity exists when body has excessive stores of fat. (Wiseman, 2002) Height squared divided by weight. e.g. (1.8m x 1.8m) = 3.24 ÷ 70kg = 21.6
also known as Quetelet’s index.
Though BMI is a good basis for defining obesity, it does not take into account body fat distribution which may also affect health, e.g. abdominal adiposity which can be figured out by measuring ratio of hip and waist circumference. Obesity can cause both physical and psychological issues in individuals. This can include diabetes, gall bladder disease, ischaemic heart disease which can also be accompanied with hypertension, coronary heart disease, reproductive disorders, and sleep apnoea. (Garrow, JS., James, WPT., Ralph A, 2000) Excessive weight gain can increase chances of joint problems including Osteoarthritis. (Wiseman, 2002) Social discrimination can play a large role in the self esteem of individuals who are obese which can lead to depression, anxiety. (Garrow, JS., James, WPT., Ralph A, 2000) The National Health Service (NHS) promotes the eatwell plate to help promote and advise individuals on the recommended intake
of different food types
and nutrients they
should be consuming
in order to be at their
optimal health. "last year was a turbulent one in nutritional care, with a number of health-care providers continuing to demonstrate poor standards in their provision" (Wilson 2012) . Frequency of hospital admissions GP Visits Long stays in hospital Infection Admittance to long term care Unnecessary death Pica The craving to eat things
not normally considered
food substances. Xylophagia Trichophagia Hylaphagia Urophagia Geophagia Coprophagia Identifying barriers Health - family history, patient health history, future health predictions, current health status
Perceptions of treatment needs
Perceptions of ability - diagnosis, disability
Side effects of medication
Hospital equipment - I.V. pumps, O2 masks etc.
Religion and spirituality
Living conditions - wealth/poverty
Abuse - Physical, mental, neglect, bullying
Healthcare professionals passing on the responsibility Barrier - an obstruction to a desired outcome (Collins 2001) "While screening, care planning and red trays are important tools, it sometimes appears these replace a common sense and practical approach to care delivery". (Wilson 2012) Calories Count! Anderson, A., 1994., Diet and Pregnancy: what to advise., 238 (1542): 607-11
Elson, M, Haas, MD., 2006, Staying Healthy with Nutrition, 21st Century Edition, Berkeley/Toronto, Celestial
Winick, M., 1986., Nutrition in Health and Disease., Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley and Sons
Worthington-Roberts, B., and S Williams., 1993., Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation, Fifth Edition., St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby