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The Human Body System

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Nicole Smith

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of The Human Body System

The Human Body System
Skeletal System
Muscular System
Digestive System
Respiratory System
Circulatory System
Lymphatic System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Skeletal System 1
Skeletal System 2
Skeletal System 3
Digestive System 1
Digestive System 2
Digestive System 3
Muscular System 1
Muscular System 2
Muscular System 3
Respiratory System 1
Respiratory System 2
Respiratory System 3
Circulatory System 1
Circulatory System 2
Circulatory System 3
Nervous System 1
Nervous System 2
Nervous System 3
Lymphatic System 1
Lymphatic System 2
Lymphatic System 3
Endocrine System 1
Endocrine System 2
Endocrine System 3
To sum up our

Each of these systems
are just as important...
And you need to make
sure you're taking care
of your very own body...
So that your body takes care of-
The Skeletal System is responsible for giving structure and support, produces blood cells, protects inner organs, contains calcium and phosphorus, and along with the Muscular System, it helps you move!
The Muscular System has three types of
muscles. There are Skeletal Muscles, Cardiac Muscles, and Smooth Muscles.
Each of these has similar yet different
parts of their job to help your body.
The Digestive System helps you digest properly. Without the Digestive System functioning properly, you would not have a good experience dealing with the tasty food you could have eaten.
The Respiratory System mainly
consists of the nose and the mouth, the Pharynx and the Larynx, the Trachea, Bronchi, the Diaphragm, and the Lungs.
The Circulatory System helps by delivering oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. The transporter is the Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells helps defend your body from infections, and Platelets
helps clot blood.
The Nervous System is responsible for controlling all the body functions, and where the brain acts as the "central computer" for our body. The nervous system is like a network that sends messages back and forth in the body.
The Endocrine System affects almost every single thing and function in our whole human body system. This system mainly helps regulate mood, sexual reproduction, development and growth.
Excretory System
The Excretory System's objective is to
get rid of all wastes from your body. Wastes can come from the skin, the Digestive System, and the Sensory System(such as the eyes, nose, and ears).
Excretory System 1
Excretory System 2
Excretory System 3
The lymphatic system is a drainage network, helps keep bodily fluid levels balanced, and fights infections.

Your skeletal system has three types of bones, the types are:

1. Compact Bones

2. Spongy Bones

3. Cartilage

The muscular system voluntary muscles are muscles you can control consciously, involuntary are muscles are muscles cant be controlled consciously. Your skeletal and muscular system work together when you move. Not all muscles are attached to the bones, though.
There are 3 types of muscles:

1. Skeletal muscles

2.Cardiac muscles

3.Smooth muscles.

Je-Uhn Smith & Nicole Livadina
Boeblingen Middle School/Science/Period 3
A compact bone gives other bones strength. These bones are located under the periosteum. They have a framework which contains deposits calcium and phosphates, which is why the bones are hard.

In this layer, you can find bone cells and blood vessels. Surprisingly, this layer is living tissue, and despite its hard structure, it prevents the bones from being broken.
Je-Uhn Smith
Design and Edit Presentation, Research (Systems: Skeletal, Muscular, Digestive, Respiratory, Circulatory, Lymphatic, Nervous, Endocrine, Excretory)

Nicole Livadina
Graphics advisor

interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
interesting facts!
-The largest muscle in our body is the Gluteus Maximus(also known as the buttocks). The smallest muscle in our body is the Stapedius, located in our ears. The longest muscle in our body Sartorious.

-You have all the muscle fiber you need since birth. Once the muscle fiber is damaged, it cannot be replaced.

-Your muscles make up 40% of your body weight.

-Our body generates 1-3 pints of saliva each day.

- A normal adult can hold at least 1 liter of food and at most 3 liters. A baby's stomach can hold only 30 ml of food.

-Our small intestine's surface area covers almost 2,700 square feet(The size of a tennis court!)

-If you stand on your head, food would still be able to go to your stomach. The reason for this is because muscles contract in waves that help give directions to chewed food in order to pass the esophagus.
-Approximately 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys each day.

-Red blood cells make approximately 250,000 round trips of the body before returning to the
bone marrow, where they were born, to die.

-It takes about 1 minute for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

-Blood that is rich in oxygen appears red. Blood that is poor in oxygen appears blue.
-We breathe 13 pints of air each minute.

-Your right lung is slightly larger than your left lung.

-The capillaries in the lungs would extend 1,600 kilometers if placed end to end.

-We lose 1/2 liter of water each day just by breathing. The water vapor we breathe onto a glass shows the water we lost.
Over a period of time, your muscles could change size
whether you used your muscles, or didn't. Your muscles need energy to contract and relax.
The skeletal muscles are the muscles that help your bones move. Your skeletal muscles does most of the work, compared to the other muscles.

The cardiac muscles are found only in the heart, like skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles are striated. These muscles help by pumping blood to the heart from other parts of the body.

Last, but not least are the smooth muscles, the smooth muscles are only found in the intensives , bladder, blood vessels, and other internal organs. They help by tightening up and relaxing to let food pass through your small and large intestine.

The main function of the Lymphatic System is to protect
our body from diseases, and to remove waste products from body cells. The Lymphatic System is composed of a series of vessels running throughout the body that carry white blood cells. This white blood cells substance, known as Lymph, fights infections and transfers waste products from the cells to the blood stream(where they are eventually gotten rid of).

The Spleen, Thymus, Lymphocytes, Lymph Nodes, and Bone Marrow are all important parts of the Lymphatic System.
There are around 500-700 small organs connected by a series of vessels. These organs are called Lymph Nodes, and they remove waste products from cells.

Located on the upper-left side of the abdomen, right under the rib cage, contains a vital organ of the Lymphatic System, known as the Spleen. The Spleen is a spongy organ, and, without it, you would still be able to live, but you would have a higher risk of catching a disease.
The Bone Marrow is important in this system. Red Bone Marrow produces immature Lymphocytes, which are then transferred to the Thymus to become matured. The Lymphocytes were released into the bloodstream right when it's produced, ending up in the Thymus. A person's immune system could be weakened because the bone marrow could be destroyed, having the lack of white blood cells to fight diseases.

There are two types of Lymphocytes:

B cells, who are responsible for producing soluble substances called antibodies into the body's fluid, or humor. Antibodies usually interact with bacteria and toxic molecules, but are unable to go through living cells.

T cells, however, directly attack body cells that is dangerous or have been affected by viruses.
-"Lympha" means water goddess in Latin.

-The first Lymphatic System reference can be found in a research work conducted by Hippocrates, named 'On Joints'.

-When you get the flu, the T lymphocytes fights the virus.

-The lymphatic system is closely under the skin.
Cancellous Bones, though normally called the Spongy Bones, are called this way because of the small holes and open spaces, which causes the bones to be light-weighted. Spongy Bones contain Bone Marrow, which is where the blood cells are created.

Cartilage is what your nose, ears, and other parts of the body made out of. Cartilage helps by holding some bones together, also acting as a cushion so that the bones won't be able to grind against each other. Cartilage is firm, yet flexible.
-After death, cartilage rots faster than bones. This is why the skulls of skeletons have no nose or ears.

-Bones are alive, because they have blood vessels and nerves inside of them.

such thing as bone cancer, but it is a rare disease.

-The Fibula(the second shin bone) does not carry any weight.
-The brain looks like a giant, wrinkled walnut.

-Unlike other body cells, brain cells cannot regenerate or replaced....so don't smell Sharpies, kids.

-The right side of your brain controls the left side of the body, while the left side of your brain controls the right side of your body.

-There are more nerve cells in the human brain than there are stars in the Milky Way.

-An average person defecates around 305 pounds a year.

-The eyes and ears can be considered as part of the Excretory system because it produces wastes.

-The left kidney is located a little bit higher than the right kidney.

-You can survive with only one kidney, but you can't survive without any kidneys.
- The endocrine system is like the nervous system, it's an information signal system, but instead of using neurons, it uses chemical messengers, also known as hormones, and each has its own unique function.

-Traditional Chinese healers practiced endocrinology more than 2,000 years ago.

-The term "hormone" is only about a century old.

-Dogs were once an important part of endocrine research.
Some common illnesses related to the respiratory system:

, a long-term, provoking lung disease that results the airways to become tight and narrow when a person with the condition interacts with what they're allergic with.

, when the membranes lining the larger bronchial tubes become inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is produced. The person with bronchitis then develops a bad cough to get rid of the mucus.

Common cold
, which is caused by over 200 different viruses that cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. The common cold is the most common respiratory infection.

The respiratory system is responsible for supplying the body with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. The main organs in the respiratory system are: the nose, trachea, larynx, lungs, epiglottis and the diaphragm. Respiration is the process in which oxygen from the atmosphere enters the body after which carbon dioxide is released.
The red blood cells transport the carbon dioxide back to the lungs and we breathe it out when we exhale.

The diaphragm helps pumping the carbon dioxide out of the lungs and pull the oxygen into the lungs. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the bottom of the chest cavity.

Cilia protects the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose with the breathed air.

The lungs are essential to the respiratory system. They move oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out. The oxygen is passed to the red blood cells as they pass through the lungs, and the carbon dioxide is collected from the same cells as they pass through the lungs again on their return trip.
A video of an heart surgery.
Since there weren't a lot of real hearts beating, this video showed a clear shot of what a real pumping heart looks like.
The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. Vertebrates have central and peripheral nervous systems.

The nervous system has three basic functions:

1. Sensory neurons receive information from the sensory receptors.

2. Inter-neurons transfer and interpret impulses

3. Motor neurons send appropriate impulses/instructions to the muscles and glands.
The nervous system contains billions of neurons (nerve cells). A neuron has a cell body, arms called dendrites, and a long projecting fibre, the axon. Electrical signals – up to 2,500 per second – can pass along axons. They can also jump between neurons by means of chemicals that pass across the gaps in synapses (neuron junctions).
Cardiovascular System, or the Circulatory System's main organ is the heart.Your heart is a pump. The heart sends blood around your body. The blood provides your body with the oxygen and nutrients it needs. It also carries away waste. The heart is divided into four chambers. The top two are known as the atria, while the bottom two are called ventricles.
Two of the heart valves are the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve. They let blood flow from the atria to the ventricles. The other two are called the aortic valve and pulmonary valve, and they're in charge of controlling the flow as the blood leaves the heart. These valves all work to keep the blood flowing forward. They open up to let the blood move ahead, then they close quickly to keep the blood from flowing backward.
Functions of the Cardiovascular System:

1.Transportation: The cardiovascular system transports blood to almost all of the body’s tissues.

2. Protection: The cardiovascular system protects the body through its white blood cells.

3. Regulation: The cardiovascular system is instrumental in the body’s ability to maintain homeostatic control of several internal conditions.

The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands.
There are two classes of Hormones:

1. Water-soluble hormones include the peptide and amino-acid hormones such as insulin, epinephrine, HGH, and oxytocin. As their name indicates, these hormones are soluble in water. Water-soluble hormones are unable to pass through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and are therefore dependent upon receptor molecules on the surface of cells.

2. Lipid-soluble hormones, which include the steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
A gland is a group of cells that secretes, or produces chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and produces the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. Some types of glands release their secretions in certain areas. For instance, exocrine glands, such as the sweat and salivary glands, release secretions in the skin or inside the mouth. Endocrine glands, on the other hand, release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream where they can be transported to cells in other parts of the body.
The digestive tract, known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, starts from the mouth, continues to the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (usually named the colon) and rectum, ending at the anus. The entire system — from mouth to anus — is around 9 meters long.
The excretory system is the system of an organism's body that performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes. The excretory system is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis.
Digestion breaks down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. Food and drinks would change into smaller nutrient molecules before blood absorbs them and transports them to cells throughout the body. Food and drink nutrients break down into carbohydrates, protein, fats, and vitamins.
The skin, and digestive, and urinary system are all related to the excretory system. The skin gets produces sweat to clean up your body, not just that, but to also help you cool off. While the digestive system produces feces, originally food, because the necessary materials are already consumed. The urinary system, of course, produces urine.
Five common digestive disorders are:

1. Diarrhea

2. Malabsorption(problem consuming nutrients)

3. Weight loss

4. Abdominal pain and swelling

5. Food intolerance
Kidneys are also part of the excretory system, in fact. It removes the nitrogenous wastes from the blood such as urea and salts and excess water are also removed from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine. This is done by the help of millions of Nephrons present in the kidney. The filtrated blood is carried away from the kidneys by the Renal vein (or kidney vein). The urine from the kidney is collected by the Ureter (or excretory tubes), one from each kidney, and is passed to the Urinary bladder. Urinary bladder collects and stores the urine until urination. The urine collected in the bladder is passed into the external environment from the body through an opening called Urethra.
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