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U.S. and Asia: Open Door Policy in China (1890's-1900's)
Transcript of U.S. and Asia: Open Door Policy in China (1890's-1900's)
silver Imperialism: as defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography, is "the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." Positive Impact Trade with Asia started as early as the 1800's China is our number two trading partner second to Canada We take much more resources than we give to China and owe the biggest deficit to them Without this policy America and China may not be as big of trading partners as they are today This policy seems like an advancement, but did not affect anything at that time. Just reserved a spot for them in the future to use China resources. Important People: John Hay: Secretary of State (from 1898-1905)
-made many important decisions that affect America
-fall of 1898, had the desire to create an “open door” that would allow all trading nations to access the Chinese Market
-propose the Open Door Policy
-exercised foresight for America’s future
-want to “protect the prospects of American businessmen and investors.” William McKinley (born 1843-1901 (assassination))
-25th president of United States
-reelected twice but sixth months after second inauguration, was shot.
-many political achievements
- sinking the battleship Maine
-war against Spain in 1898 U.S. and Asia: Open Door Policy in China By: Margaret, Annie, Herbie, and Jackson Historians reviews Some Historians look at this as a time of growth for america Boxer Rebellion
-help finally arrived from international soldiers
-int. soldiers looted the captial and ransacked the Forbidden City Spheres of Influence
-Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia claim trading rights in certain parts of China
-China was divided into spheres of influence
-similar to the “scramble for Africa”
ex: Japan issuing Twenty One Demands
-allowed Japan to control Manchuria and Shandong province
-China reluctantly accepted due to fear of going to war with Japan How the Open Door Policy Ended: China how was the Chinese Government affected?? Decrease Chinese government power because it was divided How did the people react? Beginning in 1898 people in northern China formed a group called the Boxers, they were called Boxers because they practiced Martial Arts
Their goal was to over through the Qing government and push out the "Foreign Devils," including Christianity because it was a westernized belief. Boxers marched to Bejing ganging support on the way
They seized Bejing for 55 days however when Japanese, American, and European troops came they were easily defeated The "boxers" ended with the signing of the Boxtol Protocol
The Boxton Protocol said that rebellion's leaders to be executed and the payment of financial reparations to the injured nations.
-if there was no policy, then US would most likely be “excluded from future commercial activities.” The U.S. was emerging as a world power Realized that in order to gain more power it need to imperialize other countries. Saw China as an opportunity to assert iteslf as a power amongst European countries. America needed spheres of influence around the world. John Hay introduced Open Door Policy
Gave European Countries, Japan, and U.S. opportunity to assert seperate control by seperating it into equal parts. (all nations would have an equal footing)
"In 1900 Secretary of State John Hay announced what became known as the "Open Door" policy with regard to China. His intention was that no European nation was to create a sphere of influence in China to the exclusion of other nations. America is once again willing to look outward and intervene overseas to further her own economic and political interests." http://www.sagehistory.net/worldpower/imperialism.htm America descovered how many resources were in Asia and made the Open Door Policy so America would not miss the opportunity ANALYZE! Boxers America Other historians look at this as a time where America started to overextend its reach into other countries All historians look at this period as a keystone for foreign policy of 20th century American foreign policy Only the Chinese government should collect taxes on trade American textile manufacturers found new markets for cheap cotton goods. How was the government affected? yet some historians still look upon this policy as unrealistic and innefective How did the people react? first step in establishing a international relation with China All Historians think that this was a time that America truly put itself into the world market without a war to force them on weakened by series of secret treaties between Japan and the Allies Background America had just won Spanish-American war Annexed Hawaii
Boxers were made up of a secret society called: Fists of Righteous Harmony America saw China as an opportunity to gain even more power Senator John Hays creates Open Door Policy Nations were prevented from establishing colonies in China This allows America to get in on the opportunities that China brings to the world textile manufactuers support the policy Twenty One Demands (1914) -Give German's possessions of China to Japan
-Manchuria and Mongolia is reserved for Japan to exploit and or colonize
-have control of the main coal deposits of China
-Japan had the ability to intervene with "China's military, commercial, and finanicial affairs."
QUIZ TIME Who created the Open Door Policy? QUIZ TIME!!!!! http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Open-Door-Interpretation.html
http://www.bookrags.com/Open_Door_Policy Works Consulted John Hay Who were the Boxers? A group of radicals trying to get rid of Qing dynast and all things westernized How was the Chinese government affected? They were weakened What were some of the resources? copper, silver and petroleum THE END!