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American Revolution French Revolution & the Enlightenment

This presentation will show the connection between the ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers and the establishment of the United States as an independent nation as well as the French Revolution and its bloody attempt at a pure republic.

Douglas Ramage

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of American Revolution French Revolution & the Enlightenment

The American Colonies 13 colonies of England
Ruled by King George III
Citizens were subjects of the British Empire
Colonies were self governing King George III French & Indian War 1754: England at war with France
1763: England defeats France, gains control of North America
War was expensive
Tax American colonies to pay for the war
1764: Sugar Act, tax on sugar
Colonists angry over the tax, first direct tax placed on colonists
Sugar Act repealed "No Taxation Without Representation!" Colonists have no representatives in Parliament
Parliament creates taxes
Colonies not represented in Parliament, no vote on taxes
Unfair to pay without vote
Many don't pay tax
Becomes a major issue Colonists attacking a tax collector 1767: Townshend Acts: tax on glass, lead, paint, paper & tea
1773: Tax on Tea
Boston Tea Party
King George closes Boston Harbor to punish colonists, Intolerable Acts
Creates more anger in the colonies
Not being treated fairly
1774: forms 1st Continental Congress to complain to King George
King ignores them More Taxes! Enlightenment Ideas Inspire Colonists Social Contract
Government not working
People have the right to change their government
Democracy, life, liberty & property War Begins
British troops march to Lexington to arrest Samuel Adams & John Hancock
March to Concord to seize colonial arsenal
British troops & colonists fight at Lexington & Concord
British retreat to Boston
American Revolution had started The American Revolution The Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson
Inspired by Locke & Rousseau
Defines democracy & the Social Contract
Explains why the Colonists want Independence from England
Explains what King George did wrong
Announces that the colonies are now a free & independent from England Colonies & England Prosper Colonies provide England with raw materials
England produces finished goods for international sale
1651: Navigation Act prevents colonists from selling to other nations, created high taxes on foreign imported goods English ships carrying raw materials from the colonies to England English ships carrying finished goods to colonies Stamp Act
1765: Stamp Act, tax on all printed materials Stamp Act repealed by Parliament in March 1766 England is a Constitutional Monarchy King
power to enforce the laws Houses of Parliament
power to create the laws, elected by the people Rousseau Locke Images of the Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty 1765: secret group forms in all 13 colonies
Attacked tax collectors
Intimidated colonists who complied with paying taxes
Published newspapers & pamphlets attacking the tax Share Power 1st Continental Congress Preparing for War
Colonists organize militias
Stock pile weapons & gunpowder
Number of British troops in the colonies increases
Tensions run high Cartoon Protesting the Intolerable Acts "The shot heard 'round the world" Concord Hymn
By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag to April’s breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,
And fired the shot heard round the world.
- Ralph Waldo Emerson (1836) To War!
2nd Continental Congress votes to raise a Continental Army
George Washington placed in command The shortest, simplest, funniest way to cover the entire Revolution thanks to "School House Rock" The Colonists Create a New Government 1781: 13 colonies ratify a new government
Articles of Confederation
A republican form of government: the people rule through elected representatives
Power at the state level
New government has many problems A Weak National (Federal) Government Colonists feared giving the national government too much power
No executive or judicial branch
Legislative branch: 1 House Congress with 1 vote for each state
Laws needed 9 out of 13 states approval
No power to collect taxes or regulate trade
Had to "request" money from the states
Did not function, could not manage the nation States Divided States created thier own money
Taxed goods from other states Shay's Rebellion February 1787 Congress approves a Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles of Confederation
55 delegates meet for 4 months in Philadelphia
Create an entirely new government for the United States France Prior to the Revolution Absolute Monarchy under Louis XVI
Large population (mostly poor peasants)
Heart of Enlightenment movement Louis XVI Old Regime France divided into 3 Estates (classes) 1st Estate - Church/Clergy
less than 1% of the population
owned 10% of the land
paid 2% in taxes to the King 2nd Estate - Nobles
2% of the population
owned 20% of the land
paid little to no taxes to the King Against Enlightenment Ideas! 3rd Estate Bourgeoisie
Business owners, artisans
Wealthy & educated
Paid high taxes
No power, want power!
Supported Enlightenment ideas Urban Workers
lived & worked in cities
low wages, little food
often unemployed
paid high taxes Peasants
80% of the population (26 million)
paid 50% in taxes & tithings
uneducated, poor 3rd Estate Embraces Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment Ideas Inspire the 3rd Estate
Freedom & democracy
limiting the power of the government
natural rights American Revolution Inspires the 3rd Estate
people can create change
get rid of a King
create a democracy based on natural rights
France in debt
high taxes limited profits
bad weather leads to poor crop production
lack of food
cost of food rises significantly
Royals continue to borrow and spend The cost of 1 loaf of bread
1 month salary Poor Leadership Louis XVI failed to take decisive actions
Paid little attention to his advisors
Marie Antionette, hated by the French people
Lack of respect for the Royals Economic Troubles in France Louis is Forced to Act Louis needs to raise taxes
Wants to tax the 2nd Estate (nobles)
2nd Estate forces Louis to call a meeting of the Estates-General to approve the tax Estates-General: an assembly of representatives from all 3 estates. Each estate gets one vote. Estates meet in seperate halls and the 1st & 2nd Estate will outvote the 3rd Estate 1st meeting of the Estates-General in 175 years
3rd Estate (bourgeoisie) sees this as a chance to make real changes to help the people
3rd Estate demands that all 3 estates meet in the same hall (3rd Estate outnumbers the 1st & 2nd)
King Louis says "no" The Estates-General meets at Louis' Palace of Versailles,
14 miles outside of Paris June 17, 1789: 3rd Estate votes to form the National Assembly
a representative body to make laws for the French people
attacks the power of Louis' absolute monarchy
1st step in the revolution Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes (priest)
Member of the 1st Estate who supported the 3rd Estate. Published a pamphlet titled "What is the Third Estate? and encouraged the 3rd Estate to form the National Assembley Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789: National Assembly locked out of meeting hall by King Louis
National Assembly furious, King is trying to stop them
Break into Louis' indoor tennis court
members take an oath (promise, pledge) not to stop meeting until a constitution is written "Let us swear to God and our country that we will not disperse until we have established a sound and just constitutions, as instructed by those who nominated us." - M. Mounier members of the 1st & 2nd Estates join the National Assembly
King Louis orders troops stationed outside of Paris
Fear begins to grow
Will Louis use force to stop the National Assembly? Storming The Bastille Rumors spread throughout Paris
Fear that Louis would use force to stop the National Assembly, massacre people in Paris
People begin to gather weapons
Need gunpowder Bastille: ancient prison in Paris
Symbol of King's power & authority
Gunpowder stored there July 14, 1789: mob of French citizens storms the Bastille
Kills the Governor, seizes the gunpowder
Violent act of rebellion Tri color flag: symbol of the revolution Symbols of the Revolution Phrygian Cap Ancient symbol, worn by freed slaves in ancient Rome & Greece. Worn by revolutionaries to express their being "freed" from the "slavery" of the King. Cockade Worn to show support for the revolution The 3rd Estate awakening, breaking his shackles (chains), gathering arms (weapons) frightening the 1st & 2nd Estates, Bastille in the background Revolutionaries wearing the colors of
he revolution carrying the Bastille Great Fear July 20 - August 6, 1789
Fear of attack by the King's troops spreads to the peasants outside Paris
Peasants attack and terrorize nobles
Destroy homes, burn fields, rob & loot
Peasants demand an end to Feudalism and the estates system Out of fear many nobles join the National Assembly
August 4, 1789: National Assembly votes to abolish the Estates and all privledges of the 1st & 2nd Estates
August 26, 1789: National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Louis XVI does not recognize either Engraving showing the mob dragging the
beheaded body of the Governor of the Bastille Approved by the National Assembly of France, August 26, 1789

The representatives of the French people, organized as a National Assembly, believing that the ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole cause of public calamities and of the corruption of governments, have determined to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, unalienable, and sacred rights of man, in order that this declaration, being constantly before all the members of the Social body, shall remind them continually of their rights and duties; in order that the acts of the legislative power, as well as those of the executive power, may be compared at any moment with the objects and purposes of all political institutions and may thus be more respected, and, lastly, in order that the grievances of the citizens, based hereafter upon simple and incontestable principles, shall tend to the maintenance of the constitution and redound to the happiness of all. Therefore the National Assembly recognizes and proclaims, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and of the citizen:

1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good.

2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation.

4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.

5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law.

6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.

7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. Any one soliciting, transmitting, executing, or causing to be executed, any arbitrary order, shall be punished. But any citizen summoned or arrested in virtue of the law shall submit without delay, as resistance constitutes an offense.

8. The law shall provide for such punishments only as are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one shall suffer punishment except it be legally inflicted in virtue of a law passed and promulgated before the commission of the offense.

9. As all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty, if arrest shall be deemed indispensable, all harshness not essential to the securing of the prisoner's person shall be severely repressed by law.

10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law.

11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.

12. The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be intrusted.

13. A common contribution is essential for the maintenance of the public forces and for the cost of administration. This should be equitably distributed among all the citizens in proportion to their means.

14. All the citizens have a right to decide, either personally or by their representatives, as to the necessity of the public contribution; to grant this freely; to know to what uses it is put; and to fix the proportion, the mode of assessment and of collection and the duration of the taxes.

15. Society has the right to require of every public agent an account of his administration.

16. A society in which the observance of the law is not assured, nor the separation of powers defined, has no constitution at all.

17. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity, legally determined, shall clearly demand it, and then only on condition that the owner shall have been previously and equitably indemnified. the Declaration declares all French citizens to be free & equal
No mention of the King
states that all power lays with the people
end to absolute monarchy Declaration of the Rights of Man Full Text Women's March to Versailles October 5, 1789
rumors spread that Louis XVI was hoarding bread
angry over the rising price of bread, 7,000 women lead a march to Versailles
Crowd demands the King return to Paris
Mob enters the palace, kills the King's guards
Louis agrees to return to Paris
The people march Louis & the royal family back to Paris under armed guard
The people have successfully brought the King back to Paris under their control
The Royal family will never see Versailles again "Fall of the Crowned Brigands"
The revolution toppling those in power After storming the Palace the mob raided the King's store rooms and returned to Paris escorting the Royal family while carrying the severed heads of their guards on pikes. 1st & 2nd Estate "crushing" the 3rd Estate The National Assembly Takes Control turn France from an Absolute Monarchy to a Constitutional Monarchy
Constitutional Monarchy: a government where the monarch's power is limited and the people have the power to elect representatives to make laws
The law is above the King Controlling the Church National Assembly takes control of the Church
Sell land to pay off debt
Priests to be elected by property owners, paid by the state
Peasants & Church angry
Peasants break from the revolution Louis Flees France National Assembly continues to limit Louis' powers as King
Louis decides to flee France
Escape to Austrian Netherlands (Marie's nation), raise an army, return & reclaim throne
June 1791: Royal family flees Paris Royal family caught in Varennes
Louis arrested and returned to Paris under guard “You my King. You are no longer my King, no longer my King! You are nothing but a cowardly deserter; a king should be the father of the people, not its executioner. Now that the nation has resumed its rights it will not be so bloody stupid as to take back a coward like you. You, King? You are not even a citizen. You will be lucky to avoid leaving your head on a scaffold for having sought the slaughter of so many men. Ah, I don't doubt that once again you are going to pretend to be honest and that, supported by those scoundrels on the constitutional committee, you are going to promise miracles. They still want to stick the crown on the head of a stag; but no, damn it, that will not happen! From one end of France to the other, there is only an outcry against you, your debauched Messalina, and your whole bastard race.”
No more Capet, this is what every citizen is shouting, and, besides, even if it were possible that they might want to pardon you all your crimes, what trust could now be placed in your remains? You vile perjurer, a man who has broken his oath again and again. We will stuff you into Charenton and your whore into the Hospital. Louis had betrayed his people
Can no longer be trusted
Conspired to bring war to his own people
Loses any support he may have had
Seals his own fate France's New Government September 1791: National Assembly writes a new Constitution
Creates a new government
Legislative Assembly: limited Constitutional Monarchy
Louis XVI still King, has no real power
Legislature elected by the people to create laws New Government Same Problems France still in debt
Food shortages
High prices
What do we do? Legislative Assembly Splits Radicals Moderates Conservatives sit on the LEFT, left-wing
want more changes to France
more revolution
more power to the people San-Culottes
urban workers
violent & extreme beliefs & actions
spread Revolution to other nation sit in the CENTER
supported the Revolution
wanted some more changes, but not too many sit on the RIGHT, right-wing
happy with a limited monarchy
no more changes, revolution should end
mostly Bourgeoisie & former nobles Emigres
nobles who fled France
want to return Louis to power
bring back the 3 Estates WAR!! Europe's other monarchs worried about France
Revolution may spread to their nations
Want to end revolution in France
Restore Louis XVI to power Radicals Want War war will spread revolution
Austria & Prussia demand Louis be put back in power
April 1792: Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria & Prussia Leopold II: Holy Roman Emperor
Relative of Marie Antionette War Goes Badly French Army is poorly led & equipt
Prussian troops marching on Paris
Marie Antionette accused of sending info to the enemy
Prussians threaten to destroy Paris if Royal family is harmed
August 10: 20,000 Parisians attck Tuileries Palace, slaughter Louis 900 Swiss Guard & arrest the Royal Family Louis Captured at the Tuilierie Attack on the Tuilerie Palace More Rumors! More Fear!
rumor spreads that royalists (those loyal to the King) would take control of Paris with troops out fighting the Prussians
1792: September Massacres
Sans-culottes attack and kill over 1,000 imprisoned roayalists The End of the King France can no longer have a Constitutional Monarchy
Legislative Assembly calls for a new government
Depose Louis XVI
Create a new government
National Convention: pure republic, no monarch
Louis put on trial, found guilty
January 21, 1793 Louis executed in the Guillotine Louis' Last Meeting with His Family The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass; the King was obliged to lean on my arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail; but what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold; silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that were placed opposite to me; and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard it the Pont Tournant, I heard him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: 'I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France.'
He was proceeding, when a man on horseback, in the national uniform, and with a ferocious cry, ordered the drums to beat. Many voices were at the same time heard encouraging the executioners. They seemed reanimated themselves, in seizing with violence the most virtuous of Kings, they dragged him under the axe of the guillotine, which with one stroke severed his head from his body. All this passed in a moment. The youngest of the guards, who seemed about eighteen, immediately seized the head, and showed it to the people as he walked round the scaffold; he accompanied this monstrous ceremony with the most atrocious and indecent gestures. At first an awful silence prevailed; at length some cries of 'Vive la Republique!' were heard. By degrees the voices multiplied and in less than ten minutes this cry, a thousand times repeated became the universal shout of the multitude, and every hat was in the air." On January 20, 1793, the National Convention condemned Louis XVI to death, his execution scheduled for the next day. Louis spent that evening saying goodbye to his wife and children. The following day dawned cold and wet. Louis arose at five. At eight o'clock a guard of 1,200 horsemen arrived to escort the former king on a two-hour carriage ride to his place of execution. Accompanying Louis, at his invitation, was a priest, Henry Essex Edgeworth, an Englishman living in France. Edgeworth recorded the event and we join his narrative as he and the fated King enter the carriage to begin their journey: Images of the Execution of Louis XVI The War Continues 1793: France wins victories against Austria & Prussia
Great Britain, Holland & Spain join war against France
National Convention creates a draft
1974: French Army grows to 800,000 (including women) Radicals Take Control Maximilien Robespierre becomes leader of the National Convention
Wants a "republic of virtue", bring ideas of the Revolution & Enlightenment to life in France
Use force & terror to bring Revolution to the people
National Convention creates Committee of Public Safety Committee of Public Safety protect the Revolution from its enemies
Reign of Terror
use terror to enforce rules
arrest suspected "enemies"
Execute in the guillotine "Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible" If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible...It has been said that terror is the principle of despotic government. Does your government therefore resemble despotism? Yes, as the sword that gleams in the hands of the heroes of liberty resembles that with which the henchmen of tyranny are armed. Maximilien Robespierre Marie Antoinette Executed Octo. 1793: placed on trial by the Revolutionaries
found guilty & sentenced to death Between 20,000 to 40,000 people were executed during the Reign of Terror in Paris. British political cartoon showing their view of the the Revolution during the Terror. Counter-Revolutionaries many peasants revolt against the Radical leaders of the Revolution
Radicals send troops to the country-side to put down counter-revolutionaries
Over 100,000 peasants killed during the uprisings Peasants executed by firing squad at Nantes "A Revolutionary Committee during the Terror." Begun in 1793, revolutionary committees were formed in neighborhoods of cities, in towns, and even villages to keep a watchful eye on foreigners and other suspected of being opponents of the Revolution. When the official policy of Terror was introduced by the National Convention in September 1793 against the foreign and domestic "enemies of liberty," these committees were charged with enforcing the policy. In this color engraving produced in 1798 reflected the moderate effort to suppress popular radicalism and the role of the Terror. It thus presents a rather negative view of the popular revolutionary committees. An upper-class (likely noble) family is being ushered into to face questioning by committee members, some serving as judges while others point accusing fingers at the family, as the husband presents a document attesting to their good standing. On the right, two sans-culottes drink; on the walls of the room there are a copy of the Declaration of Rights of Man, a red cap of revolution, and two busts, one being that of Marat, a cult hero of Parisian sans-culottes. This engraving was made after a painting by Fragonard the younger, the son of the famous 18th century painter and raised by his father and Jacques-Louis David. The Terror Ends Robespierre had become too powerful & too radical
Dictator of the revolution
Robespierre has many radical leaders executed as traitors Georges Danton, a close friend of Robespierre suggested that they slow down the Terror and try to establish a more stable government. Robespierre has Danton and his supporters executed as traitors in April 1794 National Convention turns on Robespierre
Denounced as a tyrant, arrested and sentenced to death in the Guillotine
Robespierre's death ends the Terror and the Radical phase of the Revolution. A More Moderate Government National Convention creates a new government
People tired of the revolution & the Terror it created
the people want stability
New government: The Directory
Two-house legislature elected by the people, and an executive branch of 5 men
Power moves to the bourgeoisie & the moderates Robespierre was shot in the jaw during his arrest Why was the French Revolution so different from the American Revolution?
Why was their so much blood shed & violence?
Why didn't democracy take take hold in France as easily as it did in the American colonies?
Why did the leaders of the Revolution use the same tactics as an absolute monarch would have?
Is violence and terror a solution to any problem?
Why did people abandon reason in favor or radicalism?
How will the events of the Revolution lead to the rise of Napoleon?
Did the French ever truely get what they wanted from the Revolution? Questions to Consider The New Government 1787 Philadelphia: Constitutional Convention
Create a new federal government
The Constitution
Bill of Rights 3 Separate Branches Preamble:
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. John Locke: Social Contract Baron de Montesquieu: Seperation of Powers & Checks & Balances 1st Amendment: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition the government 4th Amendment: protection from illegal search & seizure (warrants) 5th Amendment: must be indicted by a Grand Jury, right not to testify against yourself, protection from Double Jeopardy, guarantee of due process, private property not seized without compensation 6th Amendment: right to a speedy trial, public trail, trail by jury, tried where the crime took place, right to be informed of the charges, the right to call witnesses & have counsel for a defense 8th Amendment: no excessive bail, no excessive fines or prison terms, no cruel or unusual punishment Voltaire Cesare Beccaria
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