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Capability Maturity Model Integration

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Roselyn Rodriguez

on 25 February 2015

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Transcript of Capability Maturity Model Integration

Capability Maturity Model Integration
SCAMPI Class A Appraisal
It is typically conducted when an organization has implemented a number of significant process improvements and needs to formally benchmark its process relative to the CMMI.

The only appraisal method that provides CMMI Maturity Level or Capability Level ratings.

Expected Outcomes:

A Maturity Level rating or Capability Level ratings.

Findings that describe the strengths and weaknesses of your organization's process relative to the CMMI.

Consensus regarding the organization's key process issues.

An appraisal database that the organization can continue to use to monitor process improvement progress and to support future appraisals.
SCAMPI Class B Appraisal

SCAMPI Class C Appraisal:

Classes of CMMI Appraisal Methods
-A framework for best practices.
- designed to help organizations improve their product and service development, acquisition, and maintenance processes.
- provides guidelines for companies developing their own set of processes
-does not only describe the process but also describe the characteristics of good processes.
- it is a collaborative effort which provides models for achieving product and process improvement.
- to build tools to support improvement of processes used to develop and sustain systems and products.
According to CMMI Website,
- products which provides an integrated approach across the enterprise for improving processes, while reducing the following factors:
- redundancy,
- complexity,
- cost
Output of CMMI Project :
Primary Focus :
These factors are the result of using separate and multiple capability maturity models.
“the quality of a system or product is highly influenced by the process used to develop and maintain it”.
Principle
Where does CMMI come from?
-
CMMI
is a successor to
CMM (Capability Maturity Model)
- They are both developed at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh,USA.
CMMI
inherited much of its structure from CMM...
CMM
-
developed as a result of a study financed by the U.S. Air Force.

Objective :
evaluate the work of software subcontractors.

Department of Defense -
established
Software Engineering Institute
(early 1980s) to manage the rapid increase of software development costs and issues with quality.


The work on CMM began in 1988.
CMM
-intended to be a tool to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a contracted software project.
-also applied as a general model of the maturity of processes in both IT and non-IT organizations.


1.
Initial
(chaotic, ad hoc, heroic): The starting point for use of a new process.
2.
Repeatable
(project management, process discipline): The process is used repeatedly.
3.
Defined
(institutionalized): The process is defined/confirmed as a standard business process.
4.
Managed
(quantified): Process management and measurement take place.
5.
Optimizing
(process improvement): Process management includes deliberate process optimization/improvement.
CMMI's 5 Levels of Process Maturity


1. Goals
2. Commitment
3. Ability
4. Measurement
5. Verification
Key Process Areas (KPAs) of each Maturity Levels
CMMI's Disciplines (Constellations)
CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV)

– Product and service development

CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC)

– Service establishment, management, and delivery

CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ)

– Product and service acquisition
1987 SEI-87-TR-24 (SW-CMM questionnaire), released.
1989 Managing the Software Process, published.
1991 SW-CMM v1.0, released.
1993 SW-CMM v1.1, released.
1997 SW-CMM revisions halted in support for CMMI.
2000 CMMI v1.02, released.
2002 CMMI v1.1, released.
2006 CMMI v1.2, released
Timeline
Use of multiple models

- applying multiple models that are not integrated within and across an organization is costly in terms of training, appraisals, and improvement activities.
Solution
Problem
The CMMI Product Team combined the following source models to sort out the problem of using multiple CMMs:
1. The Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM) v2.0 draft C
2. The Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM)
3. The Integrated Product Development Capability Maturity Model (IPD-CMM) v0.98
4. Supplier sourcing

CMMI
is the designated successor of the three source models.

CMMI Model Framework
The following are the process areas that are present in all CMMI constellations. This collection of eight process areas is called the
CMMI Model Framework, or CMF
.
CMMI Maturity Levels
Maturity Level

- a well-defined evolutionary plateau towards achieving a mature software process.
-each maturity level provides a layer in the foundation for continuous process improvement.
- measured by the achievement of the specific and generic goals that apply to each predefined set of process areas.

- Processes are usually
ad hoc and chaotic.
- The organization usually
does not
provide a
stable environment
. Success in these organizations depends on the competence and heroics of the people in the organization and not on the use of proven processes.

-Organizations often produce products and services that work; however, they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects.

-Organizations are characterized by a tendency to over commit, abandon processes in the time of crisis, and not be able to repeat their past successes.
-All specific and generic goals were achieved. The processes are planned, performed, measured, and controlled.

-The process discipline ensures that existing practices are retained during times of stress. When these practices are in place, projects are performed and managed according to their documented plans.

-Requirements, processes, work products, and services are managed and their status and delivery of services are visible to management at defined points.

Commitments are established among relevant stakeholders and are revised as needed. Work products are reviewed with stakeholders and are controlled.

The work products and services satisfy their specified requirements, standards, and objectives.
-Processes are well characterized and understood, and are described in standards, procedures, tools, and methods.

-Distinction between maturity level 2 and maturity level 3 :
scope of standards, process descriptions, and procedures
.
- In maturity level 2, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures may be quite different in each specific instance of the process
- At maturity level 3, the standards, process descriptions, and procedures for a project are tailored from the organization's set of standard processes to suit a particular project or organizational unit.

-The organization's set of standard processes includes:
- processes addressed at maturity level 2 and maturity level 3.
- As a result, the processes that are performed across the organization are consistent except for the differences allowed by the tailoring guidelines.
- Processes are typically described in more detail and more rigorously than at maturity level 2.
- Processes are managed more proactively using an understanding of the interrelationships of the process activities and detailed measures of the process, its work products, and its services.
At maturity level 4, an organization has achieved all the specific goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, and 4 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.

At maturity level 4 Subprocesses are selected that significantly contribute to overall process performance. These selected subprocesses are controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.

Quantitative objectives for quality and process performance are established and used as criteria in managing processes.
Quantitative objectives
are based on the needs of the customer, end users, organization, and process implementers. Quality and process performance are understood in statistical terms and are managed throughout the life of the processes.

For these processes, detailed measures of process performance are collected and statistically analyzed. Special causes of process variation are identified and, where appropriate, the sources of special causes are corrected to prevent future occurrences.

Quality and process performance
measures are incorporated into the organization.s measurement repository to support fact-based decision making in the future.

Distinction between maturity level 3 and maturity level 4:
- The predictability of process performance.
- At maturity level 4, the performance of processes is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques, and is quantitatively predictable.
- At maturity level 3, processes are only qualitatively predictable.
At maturity level 5, an organization has achieved all the specific goals of the process areas assigned to maturity levels 2, 3, 4, and 5 and the generic goals assigned to maturity levels 2 and 3.

Processes are continually improved based on a quantitative understanding of the common causes of variation inherent in processes.

Maturity level 5 focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative technological improvements.
Quantitative process-improvement objectives for the organization are established, continually revised to reflect changing business objectives, and used as criteria in managing process improvement.

The effects of deployed process improvements are measured and evaluated against the quantitative process-improvement objectives. Both the defined processes and the organization's set of standard processes are targets of measurable improvement activities.
Optimizing processes that are agile and innovative depends on the participation of an empowered workforce aligned with the business values and objectives of the organization.

The organization's ability to rapidly respond to changes and opportunities is enhanced by finding ways to accelerate and share learning. Improvement of the processes is inherently part of everybody's role, resulting in a cycle of continual improvement.
Distinction between maturity level 4 and maturity level 5 :
- The type of process variation addressed.

-At maturity level 4, processes are concerned with addressing special causes of process variation and providing statistical predictability of the results. Though processes may produce predictable results, the results may be insufficient to achieve the established objectives.
-At maturity level 5, processes are concerned with addressing common causes of process variation and changing the process (that is, shifting the mean of the process performance) to improve process performance (while maintaining statistical predictability) to achieve the established quantitative process-improvement objectives.
Key Process Areas
3 Categories of Appraisals
CMMI Capability Levels
Capability Level

- a well-defined evolutionary plateau describing the organization's capability relative to a process area.
-It is consist of related specific and generic practices for a process area that can improve the organization's processes associated with that process area.
-capability levels are cumulative, i.e., a higher capability level includes the attributes of the lower levels.
Capability Level 0: Incomplete
An "incomplete process" is a process that is either not performed or partially performed.

Capability Level 1: Performed
A process that is expected to perform all of the Capability Level 1 specific and generic practices.
Performance may not be stable and may not meet specific objectives such as quality, cost, and schedule, but useful work can be done.

Capability Level 2: Managed
A managed process is planned, performed, monitored, and controlled for individual projects, groups, or stand-alone processes to achieve a given purpose.
Managing the process achieves both the model objectives for the process as well as other objectives, such as cost, schedule, and quality.

Capability Level 3: Defined
It is characterized as a "defined process." A defined process is a managed (capability level 2) process that is tailored from the organization's set of standard processes according to the organization's tailoring guidelines, and contributes work products, measures, and other process-improvement information to the organizational process assets.

Capability Level 4: Quantitatively Managed
It is characterized as a "quantitatively managed process." A quantitatively managed process is a defined (capability level 3) process that is controlled using statistical and other quantitative techniques.

Capability Level 5: Optimizing
An optimizing process is a quantitatively managed process that is improved, based on an understanding of the common causes of process variation inherent in the process. It focuses on continually improving process performance through both incremental and innovative improvements.
Focuses on studying performance results across the organization or entire enterprise, finding common causes of problems in how the work is done (the process[es] used), and fixing the problems in the process. The fix would include updating the process documentation and training involved where the errors were injected.

Required: specific and generic goals only.

Expected: specific and generic practices only.

Informative: includes subpractices and typical work products.

Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC)
: contains the requirements for three classes of appraisal methods Class A, Class B, and Class C. These requirements are the rules for defining each class of appraisal method.

Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI)
: Method Description Document (MDD): currently the only approved Class A appraisal method.

2 Guiding Documents for CMMI assessments
CMMI Appraisals
Certification
does not exist as a concept in CMMI, rather an organisation is
appraised
and can be awarded with a maturity level rating (1-5) or a capability level achievement profile.
-The CMMI Appraisal is an examination of one or more processes by a trained team of professionals using an appraisal reference model as the basis for determining strengths and weaknesses of an organization.
Many organizations find value in measuring their progress by conducting an appraisal. The reasons are to:

1. Determine how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices, and to identify areas where improvement can be made
2. Inform external customers and suppliers of how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices
3. Meet the contractual requirements of one or more customers
It is called for when an organization needs to assess its progress towards a target CMMI Maturity Level, but at a lower cost than a SCAMPI A.

Provide detailed findings and indicate the likelihood that the evaluated practices would be rated as satisfactorily implemented in a SCAMPI A appraisal.

It helps an organization understand the status of its software and systems engineering process relative to the CMMI. It is often performed when an organization needs to accurately assess its progress towards a target CMMI Maturity Level.


Expected Outcomes:

Detailed findings that describe the strengths and weaknesses of your organization's process relative to the CMMI.

Practice characterizations indicating the likelihood that the examined practices would satisfy the goals and meet the intent of the CMMI.

Consensus regarding the organization's key process issues.

A FIDO database that the organization can continue to use to monitor process improvement progress and to support future appraisals.
It shorter and more flexible than SCAMPI A and B appraisals and are conducted to address a variety of special needs, from a quick gap analysis to determining an organization's readiness for a SCAMPI A.

SCAMPI C appraisals are often performed for reasons such as:

-Provide a quick gap analysis of an organization's process relative to the CMMI.
-Assess the adequacy of a new process before it is implemented.
-Monitor the implementation of a process.
-Determine an organization's readiness for a SCAMPI A.
-Support the selection of a supplier.
Expected Outcomes:

Findings that describe the strengths and weaknesses of the assessed processes. Depending on the appraisal scope and strategy, findings may be mapped to the relevant CMMI components.

Characterizations that summarize the adequacy of the assessed processes vis-?-vis the CMMI.

Recommended process improvement actions.

A FIDO database that the organization can continue to use to monitor process improvement progress and to support future appraisals.
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