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Rhetoric for 7th Grade English

An overview of rhetorical strategies
by

Shana Healer

on 7 February 2011

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Transcript of Rhetoric for 7th Grade English

ethos
an appeal to the audience's desire to trust the writer or speaker
the ability to inspire confidence in the speaker's credibility.

When the speaker presents ideas with clarity and appears intelligent, knowledgeable, honest, sincere, and confident, the speaker is credible (believable or trustworthy).
Example:
When a doctor speaks about medicine or disease, we usually accept and believe
what he or she says, because we have respect for a doctor's education, training and professional experience.
However, if the same doctor can't pronounce medical words, seems unsure of his statements, or forgets what he just said, you would probably question his authority as an expert on medicine.
Aristotle said there are three qualities that inspire ethos. A rhetor establishes credibility by demonstrating
Virtue:
The speaker presents as a person of good moral character, trustworthy, and ethical in conduct.
Goodwill:
The speaker is "fair-minded," acknowledging differing views, respecting the audience's intelligence and showing concern for the good of all
or appeals to "fairness" appeal to the audience's sense of what is right, fair, proper, or just. These appeals demonstrate the speaker's virtue (a good person) and goodwill (a fair-minded person, concerned for the good of all).
intelligence
virtue
goodwill
Intelligence:
The speaker shows knowledge or experience with the subject, appears as an"expert"
ethos
Ethical Appeals
Aristotle believed that effective persuasion consisted of a balance of ethos, pathos, and logos.
Consider the result when one appeal is used without the balance of the others.
Too much pathos?
Where are the facts or evidence for support?
Is the speaker reliable or credible?
Feeling emotionally manipulated?
Too much logos?
Too dull, dry, or factual?
Is the speaker truly knowledgeable or an expert on the subject?
Too much ethos?
What are the real facts?
Are all "experts" well-informed?
Should we believe the speaker just because of the speaker's title, position, or status?
Evidence
the speaker's authority may be enhanced by use of
facts and expert opinions
examples or case studies
scientific research
cause-effect analysis
A central argument is the main statement
or opinion about a problem or an issue.
Example: The central argument at the school board's meeting was enforcing dress code violations district wide.
Rhetoric keeps the AUDIENCE in mind.
Audience is the people
the writer or speaker wishes to address.
President Obama thinks of what audience will be listening to his speech before he writes it.
How would your argument on dress code change if you were talking to your parents as opposed to your peers?
appeal to a reader's sense of right and wrong by tapping into a sense of trust
Example: "I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.'"
Good rhetoric can also use an appeal to authority by including information from an expert.
What or who else would you believe if they presented an idea?
Cause and effect arguments try to convince a reader that one event or action causes another event or action.
Good arguments are supported with evidence.
Evidence is a reason that supports a person's argument.
Example: At the school board meeting, parens provided evidence along with lots of examples of the many dress code violations.
When you have an argument, how do you use evidence to help win the debate?
Good arguments can use analogy, which presents evidence by comparing two things.
Ad Hominem/
Personal Attack
Exaggeration
stretching the truth in an argument
Stereotyping/
Generalizations
Giving overgeneralizations to support an argument
attacking the person presenting the argument, rather than the merits of the argument
Rhetorical Fallacies
Watch out for
which are arguments that sound logical, but are actually the result of faulty reasoning.
In a debate, if your opponent can point out fallacies in your speech, they can use them against you.
Review the
Art of Persuasion
Full transcript