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A-Level Particle Physics Project


on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of Anti-Particles

The anti-particle of the electron is called Positron.
It has a positive charge of +1
In 1932 it was discovered by Carl David Anderson in cloud-chamber studies of the composition of cosmic rays
Positrons emitted from man-made radioactive sources are used in medical diagnosis in the technique known as positron emission tomography (PET)
The Positron also has its own neutrino called anti-electron neutrino.

Anti-Particles (n)
A group of elementary particles that have the same mass and spin as their corresponding particles but have opposite values for all other non-zero quantum numbers. When a particle collides with its antiparticle, mutual annihilation occurs and energy is given off.

- Collins English Dictionary
Hadrons are particles that interact by the strong nuclear force and are made up of 2- 3 quarks.
Baryons (and Anti-Baryons) are made up of three quarks
Mesons are composed of a quarks-antiquarks pair
They are made up of 3 antiquarks
The most common are the anti-proton and the anti-neutron
Charge Conjugation
An anti-particle and the opposite particle are related by charge conjugation.
This means that all quantum numbers, such as charge, baryon number and lepton number are inverted.
The anti-particle of a Muon is called anti-muon.
It has a electric charge of +1 (just like the positron)
It also has a neutrino called anti-muon neutrino.
The anti-particle of a Tau particle is called Anti-Tau (very creative I know..right)
It has a electric charge of +1
It also has a neutrino called... anti-tau neutrino
(surprise, surprise)
Mesons are intermediate mass particles which are made up of a quark-antiquark pair.
These mostly exist for a small fraction of a second as the quark/ anti-quark combination annihilate each other after that very short period of time, giving of energy.
Just like there are 6 quarks (or 3 pairs), there are 6 anti-quarks.
Anti-Up and Anti-Down quarks
Anti-Charm and Anti-Strange quarks
Anti-Top and Anti-Bottom quarks
They are seen as the elementary particles, just like the Leptons, Quarks and Anti-Quarks.
All the Anti-Leptons have a Lepton number of -1.
Anti-Particles in Reactions
During some reactions anti-particles are given off, along with some "normal" particles like electrons.
Beta Decay
There are two types:
Beta-Plus Decay - here Positrons can be emitted when a proton-rich radioactive nuclei decays
Beta-Minus Decay - here both an a electron and a anti-electron neutrino are given off.
Full transcript