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Evolutionary & Geological History

An illustrated review of the evolutionary history of life on Earth in the context of Geological Eras and Periods.

J Richard Miller

on 29 April 2011

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Transcript of Evolutionary & Geological History

Early PreCambrian
before 700mya Oldest Dated Rocks

Hudson Bay,
Canadian Shield RNA Enzymes (Ribozymes)
Proposed earliest replicating forms of life Ribozymes: capable of synthesizing proteins and DNA Fossilized Eukaryotes PreCambrian Fossilized Embryos Earliest sponge-like animal fossils & diploblasts (proto-jellyfish): 640mya Geologic Time Scale Hadean Eon (>3.8 bya)
Archaen Eon (3.8-2.5 bya)
Proterozoic Eon (2.5-0.54 bya)
Phanerozoic Eon (540 mya - present) Paleozoic Era
540-250mya "The Age of Reptiles" 1st turtles ( )
emerge in fossil record Triassic: 250-200mya 1st dinosaurs
Gymnosperms dominant land plant
1st true mammals emerge Dinosaurs radiate
Extremely warm, dry climate
Birds emerge & radiate from within saurian lineage Jurassic: 200-145mya Cenozoic Era: 65mya - present Tertiary Period: 65 - 1.8mya Mammals & Birds Radiate 1st horses, 1st primates
Mammals re-invade water Quaternary Period: 1.8mya - present Holocene Epoch: 12kya - ca.1800 CE Pleistocene Epoch: 1.8mya - 12kya Glacial Fluctuations - Ice Ages
Homo sapien emerges out of Africa & spans the globe
Large mammals dominate then decline in diversity End of Ice Ages
Human Civilization, Agriculture & Domestication Anthropocene: since ~1800 CE Massive Human-caused extinction
Man-made changes to climate & nutrient cycling
Industrialization & Physical & Chemical Changes to Earth Geological & Biological
History of Life on Earth
Now go back & review the specifics! Geological & Biological
History of Life on Earth Multicellular Eukaryotes 1.2 bya Multiple Endosymbioses will lead to diversity
of Eukaryote Plastids in various Protist algae Heterotrophic & Chemosynthetic Prokaryotes emerge Permian
250mya Diversification of all animal phyla Causes?
a) Atmospheric Oxygen abundant
b) Predators driving evolution
c) Emergence of Hox genes
d) ALL of the Above Cambrian 'Explosion'
540 mya Photosynthetic Prokaryotes: Stromatolites in Shark Bay, Australia Photoautotrophic Bacteria: Pre-Cambrian
Life persists...
simple & conservative Single-Celled Heterotrophic
Eukaryotes diverge Archaeabacteria Eubacteria Fossil Stromatolite -- Photosynthesis in
single-celled cyanobacteria
(similar to extant colonial stromatolites) Present-day sponges Note: you can always select (click) and zoom (scroll) through different, non-sequential points in time...
...or just follow its sequence. Rodinia Supercontinent triggers Snowball Earth: 640mya Cretaceous: 145-65mya KT Extinction: 65 mya Cambrian Period (540 - 488mya)
Burgess Shale fossil formation:– Explosion of body forms
First Jawless Fishes (Agnathans) Ordovician Period (488-443mya) Corals & Jellyfish Radiate Echinoderms Radiate Life only in Oceans Silurian Period (443-416mya) Jawed & Armored Fish
(Placoderms) Plants & Invertebrates
Invade Land Elaboration & Transition to land Cooksonia Millipedes, Centipedes
& Scorpions Devonian Period (416-360mya) "Age of Fishes": Sharks, lobed-fin & ray-finned fish Vertebrates transition to land -
First Tetrapods Emerge: (below) 1st Amphibians in fossil record:'Labyrinthodonts'& 'Lepospondyls' 1st Vascular Plants
Ferns, Whisk Ferns
& Horsetails: Carboniferous Period (360-300mya) great increase in vascular plant diversity
great increase in amphibian diversity
1st "naked"-seed plants (Gymnosperms) emerge 1st Amniotic Egg (Reptiles) further invade land
No need for water-based reproduction Mollusks radiate Diversification of Reptiles
Emergence of mammal-like reptiles
Diversification of marine organisms
Ends with massive global extinction
Break-up of Pangea supercontinent Permian Period (300-250mya) Earliest Molluscan Cephalapods
(e.g., Octopus, Cuttlefish) Horseshoe crab & crustaceans emerge Cambrian Period (540-488 mya)
Ordovician Period (488-4443 mya)
Silurian Period (443-416 mya)
Devonian Period (416-360 mya)
Carboniferous Period (360-300 mya)
Permian Period (300-250 mya) Mesozoic Era (250-65 mya) Triassic Period (250-200 mya)
Jurassic Period (200-145 mya)
Cretaceous Period (145-65 mya) Cenozoic Era (65mya - present) Tertiary Period (65-1.8 mya)
Quaternary Period (1.8 mya - present) Pleistocene Epoch (1 mya - 12 kya)
Holocene Epoch (12 kya - 1800 CE)
Anthropocene (since 1800 CE) Odontochelys Concept, Photo & Graphic Credits: (all pictures/graphics retrieved March - April 2011) Dinosaurs dominate Earth and Avians continue radiation.
1st Flowering Plants & massive insect herbivore
and pollinator radiation & coevolution.
1st Placental Mammals Emerge ( )
Global Extinction ends period: Meteor Impact & effects
KT ("K"retaceous/Tertiary) Boundary Age of Earth Oxygen accumulates
in Earth's atmosphere
(Ozone Layer forms) and
in its oceans from
Photosynthetic Prokaryotes (from 'green' to 'blue') Eomaia scansoria Equisetum spp. Tiktaalik 1st crustacean-like
winged insects (above right) 4.6 Billion Years 4.3 bya RNA World 4.3 bya: 3.8 - 3.5 bya 3.1 bya ca. 3 bya First Eukaryotic Cells
2.1 - 2.3 bya Mesozoic Era: 250-65mya
"Recent Era" Paleozoic Era (540 -250 mya) Hadean Archaen Proterozoic Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Mammals Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Multicellularity Animals Land Plants If we're at 12midnite on a 24-hr clock, each of these events/groups started their "day" at: 12:31 pm 9:42 pm 10:42 pm 3:07 am 8:52 pm 5:44 pm Humans? If our "clock" is at midnight... then
humans showed up to the party
at about 11:59 and 22 sec
(or just over 37 seconds ago) Pre-Cambrian (Hadean/Archaean/Proterozoic):
Volcano eruption - http://www.weirdwarp.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/volcano-eruption.jpg
Canadian Shield - http://www.dailygalaxy.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/09/29/shield.jpg
DaVinci’s Ribozyme - http://sage.ucsc.edu/scottlab/god_ribozyme.jpg
Archaebacteria - http://video.ecb.org/badger/download/vlc/images/VLC073_Archaebacteria.jpg
E. coli - http://mset.rst2.edu/portfolios/r/reonieri_d/toolsvis/toolsvisweb/final/images/Ecoli.jpg
Cyanobacteria - http://sharonapbio-taxonomy.wikispaces.com/file/view/cyanobacteria.jpg/50772279/cyanobacteria.jpg
Cyanobacteria - http://obsessedwithreality.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/c810x2cyanobacteria.jpg
Stromatolites (Shark Bay, Australia) - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Stromatolites_in_Shark_Bay.jpg
Stromatolites (submerg.) - http://www.viajejet.com/wp-content/viajes/shark-bay-australia.jpg
Fossil Stromatolites - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fd/Stromatolites_Cochabamba.jpg/469px-Stromatolites_Cochabamba.jpg
Archaean Landscape - http://www.bushheritage.org.au/cdr_history/ecology/images/archean_landscape_L.jpg
Ozone Layer - http://c.tadst.com/gfx/stock/int-day-oznone-layer.jpg
Small eukaryote (TEM) - http://en.academic.ru/pictures/enwiki/79/Ostreococcus_RCC143.jpg
Paramecium - http://bensonapbiology.concordcarlisle.wikispaces.net/file/view/paramecium.jpg/119182983/paramecium.jpg
Euk.Fossils - http://exoplanet.as.arizona.edu/~lclose/teaching/a202/microfossils.jpg
Volvox - http://plantphys.info/plant_biology/labaids/images/volvox.jpg
Pediastrum - http://plantphys.info/plant_biology/labaids/images/pediastrum.jpg
Spirogyra - http://w3.shorecrest.org/~Lisa_Peck/MarineBio/syllabus/ch6producers/producerwp/alexj/spirogyra.jpg
Porphyra - http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/reds/porphyra.gif
Macrocystis - http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/276409-26216-21.jpg
Multicell.Euk.Fossil - http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/upload/2006/04/parapandorina.jpg
Rodinia - http://www.bevpease.force9.co.uk/ki.maps.Cont-Drift_files/image002.jpg
PreCambrian Soft-Animals - http://mrbarlow.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/ancient-ocean-life.jpg
Sponge - http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_09_img0540.jpg
Spongocoel - http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20090304/a1835_1585.jpg
Cambrian Diversity Art - http://astrobio.net/albums/origins/agb.jpg
Hox genes - http://www.nap.edu/books/11876/xhtml/images/p20013a49g30002.jpg
‘Monstrous’ Trilobite - http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/images/others/d-monstrosus.jpg
many many to be added

A spiraling pathway through time internet-ubiquitous, unattributed graphic.http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_LTDarCYdGZc/TLIP8BYlObI/AAAAAAAACZk/K-ZnUnx1h5A/s1600/geological_time.jpg(as an example)

'Geologic Clock with Events' -http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Geologic_Clock_with_events_and_periods.svg via Wikimedia Commons by Woudloper derivative work: Hardwigg (File:Geologic_clock.jpg) [Public domain].

Greg Haenel's Prezi entitled “Evolution of Life on Earth Large Scale Patterns” at 

concept initially inspired by a hand-drawn sketch made by a Marine Sciences professor at UNC-Chapel Hill (who's name escapes me); originally shown to me by John Bruno. I've taken to giving it the affectionate nickname, "The Old Well." : 1st terrestrial plant.
Mosses & Worts (non-vascular plants) only (left & below) & Chlorophyta (Green)
with Red & Brown Algae (right) Volvox spp. Paramecium spp.
Full transcript