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Aviation Security


Nicolas Anzalone

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Aviation Security

Defense in Depth Concept Crucial to a successful, functioning security system is the development of layers within the security network.

involves the design and establishment of a series of layered security to protect critical assets

security of each of these layers depends on airport layout and operations TSA Passenger view: Poor customer Service
Media releasing information singling out TSA for violating civil rights and poor treatment on passengers
EX. 6 yr old "Pat Down" The "Man" who showed the world his Underpants Umar Farouk Abdul mutabllab of Nigeria
Christmas day 2009 flight 253 from Amsterdam to Detroit
Attempted to detonate PETN sewn in his underwear
bomb failed but proved still severe gaps in aviation security
Intelligence community and terror watch list failed TSA procedures were effective in flight 253 Nothing on the market currently that can detect non metallic explosive like PETN
Security check points worked: bomb failed because who ever created the bomb had to use less reliable components to sneek past security.
PETN is not a new threat: its been around for a decade Pentaerythrite Tetranitrate Have a SAfe Flight? Armored booth System:
Passenger one at a time steps into the booth. Instead of x raying the passenger it detonate any explosive device the passenger might be carrying.

Muslim only airlines - Back to the Rosa Parks Days

Going comando through security checkpoints

This is why we have a constitution Aviation Security without Boundries LAYER ONE: INVOLVES EVALUATING THE THREAT



LAYER FOUR: IMPROVE MORALE AND TRAINING OF HUMAN RESOURCES Aviation Layers of Security Creating or controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than responding to it after it has happened

Reactive airport security: response to Eric Reid "Shoe Bomber" attempt now everyone has to take off shoes at checkpoint

Proactive airport security: Developing technology and training TSA agents to detect behavioral patterns and indentify mal intent. Reactive vs Proactive Behavioral and Racial Profiling
Highly Debated Procedure: Scholars claims to promote racism
Effective or ineffective?
Profiling fit the national strategy? Profiling Catches items that scanners can miss
Agents are limited to how they can conduct a pat down search
very little tolerance from the mass public on this procedure PAT DOWNS About 250 of the scanners, known as backscatter machines, are currently operating in 39 U.S. airports.

Full Body scanners at 19 airports in the U.S.
use millimeter radio waves to pick up items hidden from view like metals, ceramics and explosives

According to the report by the Department of Homeland Security, the machines use so low a dose of radiation that passengers would have to walk through a scanner 47 times a day for a full year to exceed yearly limits of radiation exposure.

Scanner can not detect low desity materials such as powders, liquids, thin pieces of plastic and explosives concealed internally

Effective in preventing most contraband from getting on a plane, to most better than a pat down. There is room for improvement. Six Technology Advances on the Horizon

Future Attribute Screening Technology (FAST)

Remote Control Airlines

Remote video Monitoring

Dazzlers (light guns)

Super thin body Armor

Missle disrupter software

Since 1972 has there ever been a breach in security by a terrorist

Main Objective: Interview EVERY passenger

Have state of the Art technology that detects non metallic exposives in cargo

trusted personnel run live simulations to smuggle fake explosives through security Why this will not work for U.S.

Direct Comparison by Volume and Cost:

•One international airport
•11 million passengers a year
•Security cost per person $56.75

United States
•450 airports
•770 million passengers
•Security cost per person $6.93 Continue: Why this will not Work

Techniques violate U.S. contitutional rights

heavy racial profiling
interviews involve intrusive questioning
confiscate personal items: cameras, suitcase
Unwarranted search of vehicles in and outside airport perimeter What can we take from Israeli Model

State of the Art technology

Integrate some procedures

Ultimately it will not be a "Cut and Paste" solution for United States http://video.foxnews.com/v/4484200/ Current TSA Procedures: Effective or Ineffective? Past and Current Fast Track Systems

Attempts to move to a more risk-based system.

Past programs through private sector have failed (CLEAR): Paid fees for being expedited through security but ultimately went through the same screening process

Trusted Traveler pilot program includes only frequent flyers and is FREE.

Delta at airports in Detroit and Atlanta, and American at Miami and Dallas.

Based on their travel histories and backgrounds, the TSA would permit those passengers to go through a faster screening process

Full Role Out ' Trusted Traveler' Video As part of the initiative’s expansion, TSA Pre✓™ will be rolling out at the following 28 airport locations this year:

- Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI)
- Boston Logan International Airport (BOS)
- Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT)
- Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG)
- Denver International Airport (DEN)
- Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL)
- George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH)
- Honolulu International Airport (HNL)
- Indianapolis International Airport (IND)
- John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK)
- LaGuardia Airport (LGA)
- Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (STL)
- Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (MSY)
- Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport (SJU)
- Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR)
- O’Hare International Airport (ORD)
- Orlando International Airport (MCO)
- Philadelphia International Airport (PHL)
- Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX)
- Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT)
- Portland International Airport (PDX)
- Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA)
- Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC)
- San Francisco International Airport (SFO)
- Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA)
- Tampa International Airport (TPA)
- Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport (ANC)
- Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) TSA will read the barcode at the security checkpoint and then may refer the passenger to a TSA Pre™ lane, where they will undergo expedited screening, which could include no longer removing the following items:

3-1-1 compliant bag from carry-on
Laptop from bag
Light outerwear/jacket
Belt Fast Track Concept

Moving from a one size fits all to a risk based security initiative

Eliminate those who have negligible risk factors, which should be the case for 60 or 70 percent of passengers

Put remaining 30 -40% through the highest quality security technology and procedures we have available. Interviews, scanners etc.

231 million is easier to deal with than 770 million

Still not 11 million like Israel Suggestions for Fast Track 2.0

Program that includes more than just frequent flyers (roughly 336,000 currently in Fast Track)

Voluntarily provided information to expand participation:
Financial Information
Background check
Travel History
Medical Records
Religion ???

ID system: Piggy back on current TSA system: Transportation Workers Identification Credenticals (TWIC)

To handle volume of people and aid in proper collection of raw intelligence need inter-agency cooperation
FBI conducts background checks
Database that is excessable to agencies involved
Passengers pay costs to particpate Future Attribute Screening Technology

screening by using realtime, non invasive sensors technology to detect cues indicating mal intent

measures physiological and behavior signals

Application: by innovative kiosks

sensors and cameras will gauage individuals:

body temperature
blood pressure
heart rate
track position of eyes and gaze to detect if individual is lying to select questions Enter the AVATAR kiosk.

The kiosk is an interactive screening technology designed to be on the front lines of border crossings and airports. Individuals would approach the AVATAR kiosk, scan their identification, answer a few simple questions, and then move on. Meanwhile, the AVATAR kiosk has used non-invasive artificial intelligence and sensor technologies to gauge suspicious behavior. Proposal: Harnessing Inter Agency competition

Israeli Security does it already

Use trusted personel to sneek explosives and other contraband through all areas of security to find gaps

sweeten the pot bonuses and bragging rights for sucessful breaches or twarted efforts Summary of Effective Multi Layered Approach

Its not the layered approach concept, its the focus on the layers themselves

Technology will improve and narrow focus

Risk based system like Trusted Traveler is a key component to a multi layer aviation security model Remote Control Airplanes

Already developed technology that allows air traffic control to over ride an aircraft and safely land it

Prevent using airplane as WMD Remote Video Monitoring

Developing onboard surveillance systems, including sensors, video cameras and sophisicated software in the cabin of an airplane that would analyze passengers' facial expressions and movements for suspicious behavior Dazzlers - light guns

a laser gun that can temporarily blind and disorient an attacker with a beam of pulsating light.

Such weapons might enable air marshals, even if outnumbered, to confront and disable hijackers without endangering other passengers.

May be the answer to arming airplane personnel Thin Flexible Body Armor

Possible to outfit marshals and flight crews with uniforms that double as body armor.

super strong fabric by bonding 300 alternating layers of clay and polymer

flexible enough to be worn as an undershirt yet may, in future iterations, be tough enough to block a bullet To combat terrorists on the outskirts of airports shooting airliners with shoulder-fired missiles, or MANPADs.

Terrorists potentially have access to thousands of such weapons, which are unsecured and available for sale in countries, such as Ukraine and Nigeria,

In 2005 RAND Corporation report says terrorists already have used MANPADS successfully against aircraft in Africa, Asia, and Central America.

Anti-MANPAD technology -- such as devices that use infrared radiation to disrupt the missiles' guidance systems -- is already available.

Cost -- about a million U.S. dollars per plane, plus another hundred thousand dollars each year for maintenance Missle Disruptors
A Case for a Fast Track System in a Multi Layered Aviation Security Model scanner Technology
Taking away the advantage of a suprise attack

Systematic approach, obtaining the right balance of technology and security methodology through layers.

Having a proactive instead of reactive approach

Developing technology, profiling the public, and fast tracking Aviation Security Goals Israeli Model
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