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Impact of Mongols on Islamic World
Transcript of Impact of Mongols on Islamic World
ISLAMIC WORLD Tim Cha Anugya Mittal Claire Murphy
Period 6 Abbasid Empire http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/imageislam/hulagu1294.gif Khwarazmian Empire http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT6u593oEE8YuabvmSOBzqCISfhamk0xFWAbiDFn5HPwMkTONB8rA http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSPKcwEI98t38GoGLOjkNhFJY-OO4aRNqzQkIj4oDqbt-EGxQ0W http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRDXVbihcS_EB-th5zISopQjAmW0p3gpO7eoTGrA-ZvRU41urz- http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/Khwarezmian_Empire_1190_-_1220_%28AD%29.PNG Conquered Khwarazmian Empire in 1221
Became part of Il-Khan Khanate which was ruled by Hulegu, grandson of Chinggis Khan Muhammad Shah Ruler of Khwarazmian
Slaughtered Mongol caravan entering Khwarazmian Samarkand Inhabitants were famously slaughtered during a campaign Gurganj Former capital of Khwarazm
Captured by Mongols opening the floodgates of a nearby river and immersing the city. The campaign One of the bloodiest Mongol campaigns
First entrance into the Middle East Invasion of Islamic heartlands Main project of Hulegu
Began with capture or decimation of Baghdad in 1258 Baghdad captured Murdered Abbasid Caliph and 800,000 others
End of Islamic Empire "In the countries that have not yet been overrun by them, everyone spends the night afraid that they may yet appear there, too...Thus, Islam and the Muslims were struck at that time by a disaster."
-Ibn al-Athir, Muslim chronicler The Mamluks Originally enslaved by Mongols
Defeated the Mongols in the Islamic Empire by 1260
Also encouraged cooperation of Christian kingdoms with Muslims for the first time
Prevented the invasion of the Mongols into the rest of Africa http://allempires.com/empires/mongol/ae_khanatesmap.jpg http://www.uzbekistan-hotels.net/samarkand.htm http://www.karakalpak.com/ancient/mpp68.jpg http://www.karakalpak.com/images/mongol21.jpg http://medieval2.heavengames.com/m2tw/history/historical_battles_folder/ain_jalut/mongols8.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Bagdad1258.jpg/300px-Bagdad1258.jpg http://jspivey.wikispaces.com/file/view/280px-DiezAlbumsFallOfBaghdad_a.jpg/45352919/280px-DiezAlbumsFallOfBaghdad_a.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Myrbach-Charge_of_the_Mamluks.jpg Effect of the Mongols on Persia Changes
One Il-Khan ruler introduced, brought trade to a standstill
Patronage depended on ruler, but still prevalent among natives
Black Death in Persia http://www.quarterhorsespot.com/1-Persian%20conquest%20by%20the%20Mongols.jpg Source: "The Il-Khanate." The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions. U of Calgary, 1998. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/>. Mongol effect on Mamluks and
Islamic Heartlands Better tactics
Mamluks burning grasslands to deprive Mongol horses of pasture
Christian assistance during Mongol attack of Islamic Heartlands
Trade routes were safer
More movement of information and traders
Some spread of information through trade
Many libraries were burnt so there was also a major loss of knowledge http://www.historytoday.com/sites/default/files/mamluks.JPG Source: "The Il-Khanate." The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions. U of Calgary, 1998. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/>. The Islamic World Under Muslim Rule Though the Mongols razed Samarkand and Gurganj, they still spared many people, including artisans and scholars.
Many scholars and artisans were spared and taken back to Karakorum, the capital Chinggis Khan built on the steppes.
Religious tolerance so people were allowed to practice Islam
Capital moved to Tabriz, Baghdad became provincial center
Everyday tasks delegated to (usually Persian) governor Open Invasions Invasion of Baghdad allowed Asia Minor to be more susceptible to attacks
Timur, Turkic conqueror, attacked Baghdad again in 1401 http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTz9KmdETC8xOjgzPZ82e_PQTz_lANd1VTStpUuGr5VsJHCVqMZ Battle Tactics Cavalry would attack main force and the retreat
Enemy would spread out and main force of Mongol cavalry would attack
Perfected battle tactics http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTtOHEpTqPrkAZ5aMQaMNpUsTN-98SBgNKMqKenI_-wTQULDsTc ". . . every town and every village has been several times subjected to pillage and
massacre and has suffered this confusion for years, so that even though there be
generation and increase until the Resurrection the population will not attain a
tenth part of what it was before.
-Juwayni, Governor of Baghdad under Mongols
Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. N.p.: Rutgers UP, 1970. Google Books. Rutgers University Press. Web. <http://books.google.com.jm/books?id=CHzGvqRbV_IC&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252&dq=Enjoyed+such+a+piece+that+a+man+might+have+journeyed+from+the+land+of+sunrise+to+the+land+of+sunset+with+a+golden+platter+upon+his+head+without+suffering+the+least+violence+from+anyone&source=bl&ots=xlOuzBfQ0_&sig=HeIU8r7tnIneatw9srcoeohiAhE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zT2yUJWmHYO68wTQ2oDoDg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=golden%20platter&f=false>. Source: Abdullah, Thabit. "Iraq under Mongol and Turkoman rule, 1258-1534." A Short History of Iraq. Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2010. 30-49. Print. Source: http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJey0IJiaqOFSDXWap44QpGgxuiyUhu2Jahb9ZtC_MJJNI8YVKlA Peace
Mongolian code was created which standardized laws and created peace
Safety on trade routes
Religious tolerance Black Death
Spread of information through trade also caused spread of diseases such as the Bubonic Plague
Caused the death of many people and many economic and social problems War
Taught others way of war
Introduced new tools
Showed better battle tactics
Mongols introduced gunpowder to Muslims which allowed Muslims to use weapons Source: "The Il-Khanate." The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions. U of Calgary, 1998. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/ilkhanate.html>. http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/07bda79a0696b1cdd2b10f2f67c4f2e5_1M.png http://www.indianetzone.com/47/development_indian_music.htm Slave civilization in Egypt
Defeated Mongols in 1260
Began ruling the former Islamic Empire Hulegu was Mongol Demise Hulegu was Mongol Demise End of Conquest Hulegu wanted to conquer whole Muslim world
Power struggle so he had to retreat
Mamluks also grew stronger http://warandgame.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/mamluks.jpg "With one stroke a world which billowed with fertility was laid desolate, and the regions thereof became a desert, and the greater part of the living, dead, and their skin and bones crumbling dust, and the mighty were humbled and immersed in the calamities of perdition."
13th Century Source: "The Mongols in China." The Mongols in World History. N.p., 2004. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/china/china.htm>. "The Mongols ordered that, apart from four hundred artisans whom they specified and selected from amongst the men and some children, girls and boys, whom they bore off into captivity, the whole population, including the women and children, should be killed, and no one, whether woman or man, be spared. The people of Merv were then distributed among the soldiers and levies, and, in short, to each man was allotted the execution of three or four hundred persons."
-Juwaini, on the Destruction of Merv http://img692.imageshack.us/img692/4329/dbaarmy154mongols.jpg Works Cited Abdullah, Thabit. “Iraq under Mongol and Turkoman rule, 1258–1534.” A Short History of Iraq. Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2010. 30-49. Print.
“The Il-Khanate.” The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions. U of Calgary, 1998. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/>.
Juvaini, Ata-Malik. Genghis Khan: the History of the World Conqueror. Trans. John Andrew Boyle. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997. Print.
Stearns, Peter N., et al. “The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur.” World Civilizations: The Global Experience. Sixth ed. Upper Saddle River: Longman, 2011. 314-33. Print. "The Mongols ordered that, apart from four hundred artisans whom they specified and selected from amongst the men and some children, girls and boys, whom they bore off into captivity, the whole population, including the women and children, should be killed, and no one, whether woman or man, be spared. The people of Merv were then distributed among the soldiers and levies, and, in short, to each man was allotted the execution of three or four hundred persons."
-Juvaini, on the destruction of the city of Merv "enjoyed such a peace that a man might have journeyed from the land of sunrise to the land of sunset with a golden platter upon his head without suffering the least violence from anyone."