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A "METHODICAL" HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING

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Fazleen Jaffar

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Transcript of A "METHODICAL" HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING

ENGL 6103
LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY & PRACTICUM
A "METHODICAL" HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
The Direct Method
The Audiolingual Method
Cognitive Code Learning
overview
Chapter 2
The Direct Method
The Audiolingual Method
Cognitive Code Learning

The Direct Method
The Audiolingual Method
Cognitive Code Learning
Basic principle: Second language learning should be more like first language learning.
lots of oral interaction,
spontaneous use of the language,
no translation between first and second language,
a little or no analysis of grammatical rules.
PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT METHOD
Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
Oral communication skills were built up in a careful traded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
Grammar was taught inductively.
Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
Summarized by Richards and Rogers (1986:9-10)
Prepared by: Noor Fazleen Jaffar (G1315600)
8
Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
New teaching points were taught through modeling and practice.
Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY ON DIRECT METHOD
Gained popularity at the beginning of 20th century.
Widely accepted in private language schools.
Students were highly motivated and native-speaking teachers were employed.
Popularized by Charles Berlitz. (never used the term Direct Method and chose instead to call his method Berlitz Method.)
WEAKNESSES
CHANGING WINDS AND SHIFTING SANDS
First quarter of the 20th century > use of this method declined both in US and Europe.
Language curricula returned to Grammar Translation Method (GTM) or to a "reading approach" that emphasized reading skills in foreign languages.
By the middle of 20th century > The Direct Method was revived.
Redirected to the Audiolingual Method.
Did not take well in public education.
Constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background.
This method was criticized for its weak theoretical foundations.
Its success may have been more of a factor of the skill and personality of the teacher than the methodology itself.
The Audiolingual Method (ALM) was firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD
LINGUISTIC THEORY OF ALM
Structural linguists of the 1940's and 1950's were engaged in what they claimed was a "scientific descriptive analysis" of various languages; teaching methodologies saw a direct application of such analysis to teaching linguistics patterns.

(Fries, 1945)
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF ALM
Behavioristic psychologists advocated conditioning and habit-formation models of learning that were perfectly marrid with the mimicry drills and pattern practices of audiolingual methodology.
characteristics of ALM
New material is presented in dialogue form.
There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and over learning.
Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.
Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.
There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy.
Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
characteristics of ALM (CONTINUED..)
There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.
Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted.
Successful responses are immediately reinforced.
There is a great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances.
There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY ON ALM
When the World War 2 broke out, there is a need for Americans to become orally proficient in the languages of both their allies and their enemies.
The US military provided the impetus with funding for special, intensive language courses that focused on aural/oral skills. (Army Specialized Training Program (ATSP))
Numerous foundation stones of the discarded Direct Method were borrowed and injected to this new approach.
WEAKNESSES
Challenged and criticized by Wilga Rivers (1964)
Language was not really acquired through a process of habit formation and over learning.
Errors were not necessarily to be avoided at all costs.
Structural linguists did not tell us everything about language that we needed to know.
Retained the drilling typical of ALM.
Inject more deductive rule learning into language classes.
Added rule explanations and reliance on grammatical sequencing of material.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY ON COGNITIVE CODE LEARNING
WEAKNESSES
Cognitive code learning was not so much of method as it was an approach that emphasized a conscious awareness of rules.
It was a reaction to the strictly behavioristic practices of the ALM.
A return to some of the practices of GTM.
Rote drilling bored students.
Increasing interest in generative transformational grammar and focused attention on the rule-governed nature of language and language acquisition.
led to
Promotion of deductive approach rather than inductivity of ALM.
Arguing that children subconsciously acquire system of rules.
The Direct Method
Basic principle: Second language learning should be more like first language learning.
lots of oral interaction,
spontaneous use of the language,
no translation between first and second language,
a little or no analysis of grammatical rules.
PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT METHOD
Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
Summarized by Richards and Rogers (1986:9-10)
Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
New teaching points were taught through modeling and practice.
Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
WEAKNESSES
CHANGING WINDS AND SHIFTING SANDS
First quarter of the 20th century > use of this method declined both in US and Europe.
Language curricula returned to Grammar Translation Method (GTM) or to a "reading approach" that emphasized reading skills in foreign languages.
By the middle of 20th century > The Direct Method was revived.
Redirected to the Audiolingual Method.
Did not take well in public education.
Constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background.
This method was criticized for its weak theoretical foundations.
Its success may have been more of a factor of the skill and personality of the teacher than the methodology itself.
Cognitive Code Learning
Retained the drilling typical of ALM.
Inject more deductive rule learning into language classes.
Added rule explanations and reliance on grammatical sequencing of material.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY ON COGNITIVE CODE LEARNING
WEAKNESSES
Cognitive code learning was not so much of method as it was an approach that emphasized a conscious awareness of rules.
It was a reaction to the strictly behavioristic practices of the ALM.
A return to some of the practices of GTM.
Rote drilling bored students.
Increasing interest in generative transformational grammar and focused attention on the rule-governed nature of language and language acquisition.
led to
Promotion of deductive approach rather than inductivity of ALM.
Arguing that children subconsciously acquire system of rules.
The Audiolingual Method
The Audiolingual Method (ALM) was firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD
LINGUISTIC THEORY OF ALM
Structural linguists of the 1940's and 1950's were engaged in what they claimed was a "scientific descriptive analysis" of various languages; teaching methodologies saw a direct application of such analysis to teaching linguistics patterns.

(Fries, 1945)
PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF ALM
Behavioristic psychologists advocated conditioning and habit-formation models of learning that were perfectly marrid with the mimicry drills and pattern practices of audiolingual methodology.
A LITTLE BIT OF HISTORY ON ALM
When the World War 2 broke out, there is a need for Americans to become orally proficient in the languages of both their allies and their enemies.
The US military provided the impetus with funding for special, intensive language courses that focused on aural/oral skills. (Army Specialized Training Program (ATSP))
Numerous foundation stones of the discarded Direct Method were borrowed and injected to this new approach.
WEAKNESSES
Challenged and criticized by Wilga Rivers (1964)
Language was not really acquired through a process of habit formation and over learning.
Errors were not necessarily to be avoided at all costs.
Structural linguists did not tell us everything about language that we needed to know.
Full transcript