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KMH ja KSH

Keskkonnamõjude hindamine ruumilises planeerimises
by

Lauri Lihtmaa

on 14 March 2012

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Transcript of KMH ja KSH

Keskkonnamõjude hindamine
Tegevuse
kavandaja
Mõju
hindaja
Otstustaja
Järelevalve
1) KOV antav ehitusluba;
2) Keskkonnaminiseeriumi
antav keskkonnaluba
vee erikasutusluba
jäätmeluba
välisõhu saasteluba
kompleksluba
KSH
KMH

Avalikkus
Igasugusel inimese tegevusel on tagajärg. Kuna inimene on toiduahela tipus ja on võimeline looduskeskonda oma suva järgi mastaapselt ümber korraldama, siis on inimese tegevusel absoluutmõistes negatiivne tagajärg.
Keskkond
1) looduskes- ja tehiskeskkond
2) kuluuri-, sotsiaal-, majanduskeskkond
MÕJU on millestki või kellestki lähtuv teatud muutust esile kutsuv toime.
allikas: Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat
Keskkonnmõju saab positiivne olla vaid inimese loodud keskkondadele. Näiteks linnale, majanduskeskkonnale, kultuurikeskkonnale.
Looduskeskkonnale ei saagi inimese tegevused olla positiivse tagajärjega, sest looduskeskkond on isereguleeruv süsteem. Parimal juhul saab inimese tegevusel olla neutraalne tagajärg. See tähendab, et inimene tarbib vähem või täpselt samapalju, kui taastub ning ta ei sekku looduse isereguatsiooni.
Inimtegevuse negatiivse mõju hindamiseks ja sellest
lähtuvalt otsuste tegemiseks on kasutusele võetud tegevus, mida nimetatakse keskkonnmõjude hindamiseks.
Kuna tegevus, mille mõju hindam hakatakse on teada, siis seisneb mõju hindamine selle tegevuse võimalike tagajärgede prognoosimisega. Põhjuslik seos tegevuse ja tagajärje vahel näitab mõju olemasolu.
1992 Keskkonna ekspertiisi läbiviimise kord
Hindamise osapooled
Hindamise kujunemine Eestis
Hindamise liigid
KMH
KSH
KSH protsess
Kaks menetlust
Tegevuslubade taotlemine ja väljaandmione
Strateegiliste dokumentide koostamine ja kehtestamine
Planeeringud
Strateegiad
Kavad
Programmid
Mõjude hindamismenetluse alagtamine on teatud juhtudel kohustuslik
Muul juhul peab mõju hindamise algatamist kaaluma
Algatamise otsuse kaalumiseks tuleb koostada mõjude eelhinnang.
Mõjude hindamine algatatakse koos strateegilise dokumendi koostamise algatamisega. Hindamine toimub koos strateegilise dokumendi koostamisega
Mõjude hindamine algatatakse peale taotluse esitamist loa saamiseks. Hinnatakse ühte konkreetset tegevusetaotlust.
2001 Keskkonnamõju hindamise ja auditeerimise seadus
2005 Keskkonnamõju hindamise ja keskkonnajuhtimise seadus
Keskkonnamõjude hindamise läbivaks ideeks on ennetada negatiivseid tagajärgi.
Keskkonnamõju on tegevusega eeldatavalt kaasnev vahetu või kaudne mõju inimese tervisele ja heaolule, keskkonnale, kultuuripärandile või varale
Planeeringu algatus ja
KSH algatamise või mittealgatamise kaalutlusotsus
Planeeringu vajadus
Koostatakse KSH eelhinnang
Planeeringumenetluse protsess
KSH algatamine
KSH programm
Programmi avalikustamine
Programmi heakskiit
KSH aruanne
Aruande avalikustamine
Aruande heakskiitmine
Teavitamine
KM strateegiline hindamine
PLANEERING
Planeeringu algatamise ettepanek
Keskkonnamõju on oluline, kui see võib eeldatavalt ületada tegevuskoha keskkonnataluvust, põhjustada keskkonnas pöördumatuid muutusi või seada ohtu inimese tervise ja heaolu, kultuuripärandi või vara.
Siseministeeriumi arvamus
allikas: Maila Kuusik
Siseministeeriumi arvamus
allikas: Maila Kuusik
KSH dilemmad
Olulisuse probleem
Milliseid mõjusid tuleks liigitada oluliseks?
Kuidas käsitleda kumulatiivseid mõjusid?

Detailsusprobleem
Kust jookseb piir strateegilise ja projektipõhise planeeringu vahel?
Partiardo ja Fischer 2004

Jätkusuutlikkuse probleem
Kas ja mis ulatuses peaks SEA hindama lisaks looduskeskkonnale ja majanduslike ja sotsiaalseid aspekte?

KSH ja SA (sustainability assesment/appraisal) erinevuse probleem
Mis ulatuses erineb kolmanda põlvkonna mõjude hindamine SEA'st

KSH mõjususe probleem
Kuna KSH tulemuste rakendamine on KOV kaalutlusotsus, siis mida teha, et KSH mõjutaks rohkem otsusetegemise protsessi?

Planeerimise ja KSH probleem
Mis on planeerimise ja mis on SEA ülesanne?
Lähenemised KSH'le
Süsteemikeskne - nt ökosüsteemi, kogukonna, ühistranspordi toimimine

Ressursikeseskne - nt alternatiivenergia, tõhusus

Kapitalikeskne - looduskapital+majanduskapital+ inimkapital


Analüütiline
Fonomenoloogiline
alternatiivid
Sertifisteerimine

nt BREEAM communities (UK) ja LEED neighbourhood (USA) on sertifikaadile (märgisele, tõendile) keskneduv lähnemine.
Ecolable. Certificate

On vabatahtlik sertifitseerimine, mis otseselt ei
eelda ennetavat põhimõtet, kuid suurepärase märgi saamiseks tuleb tööd teha alates planeerimise algfaasist.

Hindamiskriteeriumid on üles ehitatud viisil, mis taotlevad sama eesmärki, mis KSH / KMH.

Mõjude hindamise ja sertifitseermise on selles, et märgise puhul hinnatakse ka valmis planeeringu vastavust püstitatud eesmärkide täismisel. KSH puhul on seadusege lubatud KOV'il KSH tulemusi planeeringus aresse võtta valikuliselt.
KSH roll DP's
KSH'l ei ole ühtset rolli DP suhtes (seadus jätab selle lahti)

KSH'l roll DP suhtes sõltub laias mõttes koolkonnast, erialast, ametist.

Erinevad arusaamad ja ootused lähtuvalt ametist
KOV (planeerijad vs poliitikud)
Järelevalve - keskkonnaamet
Ekspert (väliskonsultant)
Planeerija (väliskonsultant)
Ministeeriumid (keskkonnamin vs sisemin)
Based on the study it can be argued that in Estonia the SEA is not a right tool to address the integrated sustainability in detail level.

The main to arguments to support this conclusion are threefold:
1) SEA is focused (in theory and practise) on significant impacts, not on holistic and integrative sustainability assessment;

2) considering time, management efforts and expenses of the SEA process, it is not proportional measure to address the impacts of detail level (unless the impact is expected to be significant in terms of SEA regulation);

3) frequently the nature of detail plans are more similar to project level than strategic level thus making the SEA less suitable for the purpose.
alternatiivid
DIA

Development impact assessment. Peamiselt ühendriikides kasutatav töövahend arendusega kaasnevate mõjude hindamiseks, et otustada, kas ja kudias tegevust lubada. Töövahend on peamiselt KOV enda haldussuutlikkuse tagamisesks.
In determining a DA, a consent authority should consider such of the following matters as are relevant to the proposed development:
1.The general character of the proposed site and any possible alternative; the natural, urban, commercial, or industrial history of the site.
2.The consistency of the proposed development with any relevant statutory instruments, planning policies, heritage orders, or measures under Aboriginal legislation; and with any planning studies and recommendations under consideration.
3.The provisions of any government strategies or policies for the development or redevelopment of the business centres or urban area in question.
4.The results of any specific social, health, economic, or ecological impact assessments.
5.The nature and character of the existing environment in the vicinity of the proposed development.
6.The commercial and economic basis of the proposal.
7.The character, location, siting, bulk, scale, shape, size, height, density, design, or external appearance of that development.
8.The size and shape of the land to which that DA relates, the siting of any building, or works thereon, and the area to be occupied by that development.
9.The relationship of that development to development on adjoining land or on other land in the locality.
10.Whether the proposed means of entrance to and exit from that development and the land to which that DA relates are adequate.
11.Whether adequate provision has been made for the loading, unloading, manoeuvring and parking of vehicles within that development or on that land.
12.The amount of traffic likely to be generated by the development, particularly for the capacity of the road system in the locality and further afield; repercussions throughout the entire metropolitan road system.
13.The effect of traffic to and from the development on the immediate road system.
14.Whether additional public transport services are necessary to help serve the development; and whether they will be adequate.
15.Whether utilities generally are adequate for the development.
16.Whether adequate provision has been made for the landscaping of the land and the aesthetic treatment of the building.
17.The effect of the building on the meteor-ology of the district by blocking sunlight or casting shadows; or causing wind turbulence or wind tunnelling.
18.The effect of the building on the general character of the area through being excessively dominating or high, significantly varying a generally accepted character; or creating ravines, or reducing areas of relaxation in the city area.
19.The effect of the types of employment offered, on the nature and character of employment in the central business district or suburban centre; the implications for the employment and advancement of women, and ethnic minorities.
20.Any multiplier effect such as support services that the development might induce.
21.The implications for the heritage values of the city or suburban centre.
22.The implications for public space generally in the area.
23.The implications for existing occupants in the vicinity in any aspect.
24.Whether the development adds status to the urban and city scene.
25.The implications of additional office space for the supply and demand situation generally.
26.The effect on suburban centres following a further concentration of services in the city centre.
27.The effects on air pollution.
28.The effects on noise levels.
29.The implications for garbage removal services.
30.The financial implications at local government
Urban impact assessment
Checklist: matters for consideration
Source: Gilpin, Alan., Environmental impact assessment (EIA), cutting efge for the twenty-first century, Cambridge University Press 1995
In determining a DA, a consent authority should consider such of the following matters as are relevant to the proposed development:

1.Generally, those changes in social relations among members of a community, society, or institution, resulting from external change attributable to the pro-posed development; for example, where, in the case of hydroelectric dams, it will be necessary to relocate large populations into alien environments.
2.Changes in circumstance which are likely to result in social discontent, unhappi-ness, increased illness, and a loss of productivity, leading to loss of income.
3.The consequences of the severance of communities by major developments, both physical and psychological.
4.The effects of a development on general lifestyle.
5.The effects of a development on group relationships.
6.The effects of a development on cultural life.
7.The effects of a development on social tranquillity and attitudes and values.
8.Assessment of the services and infrastructure required by the new development and those required to ensure social sustainability; likely financial and other contributions by the developer.
9.The likely effect of the proposed development on neighbourhood property values by, for example, interfering with views and amenities, or introducing streams of noisy traffic.
10.The potential loss of ecological assets such as bush-land, wetlands, rainforest, distinctive geological features, fauna and flora, mangrove, swamp, lakes and creeks, forest and walking trails, lookouts, and recreational areas and facilities, and natural areas, all of value to people.
11.The effects of extra cars and extra noisy people; the impact of numerous heavy vehicles and the implications for driver and pedestrian safety; parking, and congestion.
12.The health impacts of the proposed development.
13.The effect of the development in displacing low-income people and other disadvantaged people.
14.The effects on public transport, open space, community facilities such as child care and youth centres, pedestrian access, and roads.
15.The changing character of the area affected.
16.The implications of the development for social policy.
Social impact assessment (SIA)
Checklist: matters for consideration
Source: Gilpin, Alan., Environmental impact assessment (EIA), cutting efge for the twenty-first century, Cambridge University Press 1995
In determining a DA, a consent authority should consider such of the following matters that are relevant to the proposed development and can be circulated without commercial compromise:

1.The general economic viability of the proposal and hence the ability of the proponent to meet all obligations and responsibilities imposed by development consent conditions, including rehabilitation.
2.The ability of the proponent to begin the project promptly and not be seeking consent merely as a basis for starting the search for possible contracts.
3.The previous performance of the proponent in respect of social and environmental responsibilities.
4.The generation or reduction of employment opportunities; the effect on full-time and part-time employment; the effect on female employment, and on Aboriginal groups.
5.The multiplier effects on the local, regional, or national economy through investment and other expenditure, salaries, and wages.
6.For the community, improved or reduced accessibility to facilities, services, and employment opportunities in the locality.
7.The effect of supply and demand in the local area for whatever is being proposed.
8.The effect on the choice and affordability of goods and services.
9.Better use or redundancy of existing urban infrastructure.
10.The effects on the local rate base and costs likely to be imposed on local rate revenue.
11.The possible effects of the development on commercial competition.
12.The relationship between the proposal and national or state economic, social, and environmental policies.
13.The likely cost to the proponent of proposed pollution control and environmental protection measures.
14.The requirements imposed on government and hence the public by provision of infrastructure.
15.The requirements imposed on government and hence the public for the provision of finance, grants, loans, and other forms of assistance by guarantees or protection, or reduction or abolition of risk.
16.When it is the public purse, full public disclosure of expected cash flow; debt and taxation commitments; public cost implications on-site and off-site; equity impacts; hidden costs, private and public; sources of finance, both overseas and local, and a complete cost-benefit analysis (CBA).
Economic impact assessment
Checklist: matters for consideration
Source: Gilpin, Alan, The case for the economic impact statement 20th Conference of Economists, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia, 1991
BREEAM Communities
Climate Change and Energy - flooding, heat island, water efficiency, sustainable energy, site infrastructure,

Community - promoting community networks and interaction, involvement in decision making, supporting public services, social economy and community structure, and community management of the development,

Place Shaping - efficient use of land, design process, form of development, open space, adaptability, inclusive communities, crime, street lighting/light pollution security lighting,

Buildings - EcoHomes / BREEAM or Code for Sustainable Homes,

Transport and Movement - general policy, public transport, parking, pedestrians and cyclists, proximity of local amenities, traffic management, car clubs,

Ecology - conservation, enhancement of ecology, planting,

Resources - appropriate use of land resources, environmental impact, locally reclaimed materials. water resource planning, refuse composting, noise pollution, construction waste,

Business - competitive business, business opportunities, employment, business types.
http://www.mediacityuk.co.uk/our-community/sustainability
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