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on 9 October 2013

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Transcript of ETHERNET

Within the last 20 years, there have been
around 4 popular LAN system:

2.IBM Token Ring
3.Fiber Distributed Data Interface
4.Wireless Ethernet
IBM Token Ring
Fiber Distributed Data Interface(FDDI)
Wireless Ethernet
-first commercially available LAN
-the most popular LAN system
-based on star-wired bus topology
-uses CSMA/CD medium access protocol
IEEE created a standard for Ethernet LAN, all under
category of 802.3
The original 802.3 standards:

"Base" = Baseband signals using Manchester encoding
"10" of 10Base5 represents a 10-Mbps speed
"5" represents a 500 meter maximum cable segment
-can transmit 10-Mbps digital signals over
coaxial cables
-but only for a maximum of
200 meters
-designed for
twisted pair wiring
-but with only
data transfer for
500 meters
baseband signals over
twisted pair
for a maximum of
100 meters
per segment length
-commonly used by
businesses, schools &
Ethernet Standard Max.Trans.Speed Signal Type Cable Type Max.Segment Length
10BaseT 10Mbps Baseband Twisted pair 100meters

100BaseTX 100Mbps Baseband 2 pair CAT-5 UTP 100meters

100BaseFX 100Mbps Baseband Fiber optic 1000meters

1000BaseSX 1000Mbps Baseband Fiber optic 300meters

1000BaseLX 1000Mbps Baseband Fiber optic 100meters

1000BaseCX 1000Mbps Baseband copper 25meters

1000BaseT 1000Mbps Baseband Twisted pair (4) 100meters

10GBase-fiber 10Gbps Baseband Fiber optic various lengths

10GBase-T 10Gbps Baseband CAT-6 55-100 meters

10GBase-CX4 10Gbps Baseband Twin axial ~30 meters

What Is Wireless Ethernet?
-a LAN that is not primarily based on physical wiring
-workstation can be located anywhere within transmission range
-are actually a combinations of wireless and wired technology
What is IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a?
IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a are industry standard specifications issued by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). These specifications define the proper operation of Wireless Local
Area Networks (WLANs)

802.11b WLANs operate at speeds up to 11 Mbps. 802.11a and 802.11g WLANs operate at speeds up to
What data rates are available with a WLAN network connection?
What is WEP?
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is an optional IEEE 802.11 feature used to provide data security that is
equivalent to that of a typical wired LAN.
What is WPA?
WPA stands for Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is a recent specification which provides stronger security than WEP via enhanced encryption and user authentication.
What is a WPA2?
WPA2 is a security technology commonly used on Wi-Fi wireless networks.
Wired vs Wireless
The main one is that a wired network has less chance of having its data intercepted.
security of a wireless network - it is pretty unreliable in comparison to a wired network.
A Wireless network, even with encryption, can be accessed by anyone who knows what they are doing pretty easily.
A wired network is usually cheaper than a wireless network because the cost of Ethernet cables is relatively low, and to connect a computer to a network is easy without any additional components as most new computers come installed with a LAN card.
If you use a wireless-enabled computer in relative close proximity to the wireless router, then there probably won’t be many problems with connectivity.
Ethernet will live on for a long time yet. Wireless may well be simple enough for many, but it just causes too many problems. With a cable, you plug it in at both ends and it just works without any screwing around.
Wired networks
-can't intercept signals down the wire; high-security
-immensely high speeds (depending on cable and hardware)
-incredibly long cables are still really cheap
-plug and play; usually no faffing around with settings, instant-on
-Cables can be damaged
Wireless networks
-convenient; allows freedom of working anywhere
-less/no cables; more people connecting to one access point
-limited signal range; speed decreases the further away you go
-signals can be intercepted; low security
-signals affected by other signals; radio waves
-speed not as fast as wired network


Data and Computer Communications (9th Edition) by William Stallings

Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications by Curt M. White

Data Communications and Networking by Behrouz Forouzan

-can transmit
digital signals using 2 pairs of
-was designed for
-created to support older-category
baseband signals for a maximum of
100 meters
-standard created for fiber-optic system
The 802.3u standards(100-Mbps):
-can support
baseband signals using 2 strands of fiber:
1000 meters
The 802.3z standards(1000-Mbps):
-the first gigabit standard
-supports the interconnection of relatively close clusters of workstations using
fiber-optic cables
-designed for longer distance cabling
within a building
-uses either
single-mode fiber-optic
multimode fiber
-designed for short-distance jumper cables using
balanced copper wire.
-capable of using either
CAT-5 or CAT-6
cable specification
-uses either
single-mode fiber-optic
multimode fiber
The 802.3ac standards(10-Gbps):
-for short range cabling
-for long-reach cabling
- a
copper-base standard
-uses a new variation on
-transmission distances up to
100 meters
- uses
twin axial cable
WEP uses data encryption to provide a basic level of security for WLAN users.
WEP allows the administrator to define an "encryption key" which is used to encrypt data before it is transmitted through the airwaves.
When WEP is enabled, all stations (clients and Access Points) are required to have the same WEP key.
Network access is denied to anyone who does not have the correct key.
WPA2 (Wireless Protected Access 2) replaced the original WPA technology on all certified Wi-Fi hardware since 2006 and is based on the IEEE 802.11i technology standard for data encryption.
A wired network can be shielded (That is wrapped in a sheath so that the signals (or noise) cannot be read).
The internal structure of a wired network can be arranged in such a way that it counteracts any "noise" it makes.
A wireless modem broadcasts the data it receives in all directions before it finds the correct destination - giving it more chance to being intercepted.
You don't necessarily have to be in the same room as the modem to gain access to it.
At least with a wired network you usually have to be in the same room as the actual wire before you can intercept it.
A Wireless network on the other hand will require a wireless modem, and an adapter for all the computers - so that it can recieve and broadcast data
However, if you use the connection in rooms farther away from the router, you might experience cut-out or dropped-signal problems occasionally.
If your home or office has thick walls or steel beams, connectivity problems are even more noticeable.
presented by Wee Boon & Katherine
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