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explanations of attachment
Transcript of explanations of attachment
Bowlby believed that attachment is innate (instinct and
that we are biologicaly programmed to form attachments).
He also believed in motropy (attachment to one person only).
However he thought that if a child doesnt attach within the
'critical period' then an attachment may never develop.
Evolutionary theory (Bowlby)
Learning theory (Behaviouralist approach
- Dollard and Miller)
This theory focuses on the baby wanting its
needs fulfilled and forming an attachment
with the care giver who provides for their needs.
Attachment is a close emotional bond between
infants and their caregivers.
This is the learning through assosiation. Babies learn to
associate their caregiver with food and pleasure. Food is an
unconditioned stimulus which automatically causes pleasure
More than one attachment figure
Evidence in the case Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
that by 18 montsh 31% of the babies had five or
more attachments (multiple attachments).
Evidance to support this theory
Harlo (1959) showed that comfor is imprtant in attachment.
his study showed that baby monkeys would prefer to become
attached to more of a 'mother' like figue which shows support for
Bowlby's idea of attachments being innate.
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
found evidence to support Bowlby's theory of innate attachments to the
mother and found that 65% of children in the study formed a primary attachment
to the mother, and a further 30% formed a joint primary attachment to the mother.
On the other hand this case does not supporet the idea of monotropy.
Dollard and Miller (1950) claimed that attachments can be formed by operant conditioning, which is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior (for example - a baby cries when it it hungr so the mother/ caregiver will feed them, their reward will then be satisfaction).