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Scarcity

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by

Jessica Diaz

on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Scarcity

She wants my D.
Effects of Supply and Demand on Ratings of Object Value
Scarcity
Physical Barriers and Psychological Reactance: Two-year-olds' Responses to Threats to Freedom
Parental Interference and Romantic Love: The Romeo and Juliet Effect
Parental Discipline Mistakes
The Paranoid Optimist: An Integrated Evolutionary Model of Cognitive Biases
A Commodity Theory Analysis of the Effects of Age Restrictions on Pornographic Materials
By:
S. G. O'Leary
By:
Worchel, Lee, and Adewole
By:
Zellinger, Fromkin, Speller, & Kohn
By:
Driscoll, Davis, & Lipetz
By:
Brehm & Weintraub
By:
Hasselton & Nettle
Vikki; Pg. 202
Stephanie; Pgs. 205-206
Kayley; Pg. 208
Garrett; Pg. 211
Jessica; Pg. 213
Ashley; Pg. 217
Intro
Question:
Do physical barriers affect the attractiveness of goal objects in 2yr old's?
Hypothesis:
The preference for a barricaded goal object over a non-barricaded one should be maximal when the barrier is large, but not impossible and the goal objects are not the same.
Method
Participants:
28 Caucasian boys and girls age 21 to 27 months from families in an university town in Virginia.
Procedure:
Children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) small barrier, different toys, (b) large barrier, different toys; or (c) large barrier, identical toys. Latency to touch each toy and the duration of touching the toys were scored.
Results
Statistical tests:
Observer's reliability tested using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Mixed factor analysis of variance was used to analyze the latency scores for each child. Fisher's Exact Test was used to analyze data when males touched the toy behind the large barrier when the toys were different.
Hypothesis supported?:
Yes, more in the males than the females.
Discussion
Limitations:
No limitations noted by researchers.
Implications:
The sex difference found could reflect different perceptions of the barrier situation or cultural factors either biological or social had some influence on these differences. And it appeared that the development of complex cognitive abilities is not a necessary precursor of reactance process and it suggests that the theory deals with motivational processes that are basic to humans.
Intro
1.
Commodity theory predicts that restricting
a commodity, and thus limiting its availability
, will result and increase in the desirability of that
material, as well as in the persons efforts to obtain it.
2,
Making erotic materials more difficult to obtain
might also have the unanticipated effect of increasing
the desirability of the very materials which are
thought to be harmful.

Question:
How does parental interference influence
a relationship?

Hypothesis:

A)
feelings of love become more highly correlated with trust and acceptance as relationships develop through time.
B)
parental interference in a love relationship intensifies the feelings of romantic love between memebers of the couple.
Methods:
Participants:
Time 1: 140 couples, 49 seriously dating and 91 married
Time 2: 111 couples, 35 seriously dating and 76 married.
Procedure:
Each participant was given a
feelings questionnaire
(6-point scale) and an
interpersonal behavior questionnaire
(5-point scale) about their spouse. Then participated in several forms of marital counseling and were asked to fill out the same questionnairs 6 to 10 months later.
Method
3.
64 male upper level undergraduates
4.
-Students were given info on how consumers
select books
-Subjects were asked to read 4 short statements
-They were asked to provide an evaluation of the book
-Subjects were then debriefed about the study.
Results
5. The experiment was a 2x2 factorial design
with subjects randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 conditions.
6.. Subjects who read that the book was restricted to those 21 and over percieved the book as less available to the general public than did subjects in the no-restriction conditions. Thus, supporting the hypothesis.
Discussion
7. Since the study used only male
subjects, it is unclear if the same effects would be obtained with a female population
8. These results showed that information regarding both the pornographic content of the book and age restrictions on the book increased the degree to which subjects percieved the book as both pornographic and erotic.
Introduction
Overall research question
Can cognitive biases be explained from an evolutionary psychological perspective?
Hypotheses
Error management theory (EMT) can be used to predict the bias that will result in the least costly error.
Numerous biases be explained through EMT.
These biases can be explained from an evolutionary standpoint.
Choice Options
Methods
How many samples of biases?

Auditory looming
Allergy, cough, and anxiety
Dangerous animals
Dangerous persons
Food aversions
Avoiding the ill
The illusion of animacy
The sinister attribution, overweighting of social gaffes, and negative forgiveness bias
Fundamental attribution error
Social exchange heuristic
Sex-differentiated biases in decoding courtship signals
Positive illusions
Illusion of control
13 in all
Focus: Sex-differentiated biases in decoding courtship signals
Procedures
Researchers analyzed 13 biases
Analyzed using EMT and “adopting belief” equation to see if they fit
Integrated hundreds of prior research to establish that EMT explained the bias and the evolutionary reasoning for its existence
Results
Mathematical equation utilized:
EV= p(s) {p(S|s)vTP+p(-S|s)vFN}+p(-s){p(-S|-s)vTN+p(S|-s)vFP}
p(e|s)/p(e|-s)=p(-s) x (vTN+ vFP)/p(s) x (vTP+vFN)
s=state of the world that may or may not be
S=beliefe that an individual may form
TP=True positive, true belief formed
TN=true negative, untrue belief not formed
FP=false positive, untrue belief formed
FN=false negative, true belief not formed
e=degree of evidence
v=the effect on fitness
Hypotheses were supported
All 13 biases could be explained by the error management theory (EMT), the mathematical equation, and with an evolutionary reason.
Focus: Men tended to infer sexual interest from women where there was none. Women tended to infer no commitment from men where there was commitment.
She wants my D.
A drink is a good start, but I need more commitment.
The optimum threshold (likelihood ratio) for adopting a belief S where the cost of the FN is fixed at 5 and the cost of the FP varies, with the probability of s set at .6. Threshold greater than 1 represents a bias against adopting S.
Introduction
Question:
What is the outcome from parental mistakes in disciplining children’s disruptive, oppositional, and aggressive behaviors?
Hypothesis:
Interference with the mother’s attention capacities and increases in the mother’s motivation to reduce immediately the negative emotions the child elicits in her.
Method
Participants:
There were 66 mothers of 2-4 year old children.
Procedure:
Mothers were recruited using a commercially available mailing list. Once they were selected they were asked to complete questionnaires, including the Parenting Scale. The experimenters measured the mothers disciplining techniques based on two levels: laxness and over-reactivity. The interviewer asked the mother to remember specific recent incidents where she disciplined her child in reported discrepant and non-discrepant ways. All interviews were audio recorded. Upon completion of the study, mothers were thanked and paid $20 for their time and given a parking validation for the parking garage.
Results
Statistical Tests:
A questionnaire was used to determine the Lax and Overreactive discrepancy scores used in the regression analyses. Paired sample t-tests were used as well as the parenting scale
Hypothesis Supported:
Yes, both variables were individually significant;
t (65) = 4.85, p < .001 and t (65) = 1.98, p = .05
Discussion
Limitations:
There are a couple limitations to this study:
All information was obtained by mothers, which could lead to biased answers.
Most of the mothers were Caucasian and highly educated and most of their children did not elicit any behavioral problems.
Implications:
They stated that they had little information about lax discipline.
Discussion
Broader Implications
Biases are functional aspects of human cognitive functioning rather than a hindrance
The mind is equipped with multiple, domain-specific cognitive mechanisms, with specific biases appropriate to the content, pattern of costs, benefits, and likelihoods of the task.
Emotion, specific targets, and sex specificity can also affect these outcomes
Error management biases occur when errors differ reliably in their costs, uncertainty exists, and when fitness consequences of correct discrimination are large.
Focus: Men overestimated women’s sexual interest and women underestimated men’s commitment. However, most of the time, men and women showed huge agreeableness on sexual interest and commitment level (.90).
Introduction:
Stat Test:
Empirical cluster analysis and informal conceptual analysis.
Outcome:
Both hypothises were supported,
Results:
Discussion:
Limitations:
Nonrepresentative sample. The love scale doesn't distinguish between romantic love and conjugal love. The parental interference scale measured the couples concern and communication about what they percieved as parental interefence and not actual interference.
Broader Implications:
The association between parental interference and lowered conjugal relationship factors suggest if the interence continues without resolution the overall quality of the relationship
Intro:
What was the overall research question guiding the paper?
Is something about scarcity that increases the attractiveness or value of the scarce product?
What specific hypotheses were tested in the paper?
Relative scarcity leads to a greater valued commodity than simple scarcity
A large number of persons waiting for a commodity enhances its value

Methods
Who were the participants? How many?
146 female students of an intro psychology course at University of NC at Chapel Hill.
12 subjects were discarded b/c of suspicion of refusal to eat cookies.

Briefly describe the procedure?
Jar of Cookies:
Scarce-change: 10 --> 2 cookies in jar
Scarce-no change: 2 cookies
Abundant-change: 2 --> 10 cookies
Abundant-no change: 10 cookies
He left and 1st experimenter continued and introduced:
Low-participation
High-participation
Participant to try them and then rate the cookies.
Debriefed

Results
What statistical tests were conducted?
Planned comparisons

Were the hypotheses supported?
Relative scarcity leads to a greater valued commodity than simple scarcity ✓
Scarce-change, abundance-change vs. scarce-no change, abundance-no change

A large number of persons waiting for a commodity enhances its value
Low vs. high participation

Discussion
Did the researchers identify any limitations of the study?
Demand Characteristics

What are some of the broader implications of the study?
For business:
One way to increase the value of a product is to first make it abundant

and then quickly diminish the supply
Reduce the supply of the item and indicate that this reduced supply is due to popular demand for the product
Full transcript