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golf power factors

Body Mechanics

moon seok choi

on 27 July 2012

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Transcript of golf power factors

Presented by

Jin Yoo, TPI level 3
Golf Academy of America

Moon Seok Choi, TPI level 1
Golf Academy of America

Gareth Trainer, Coutour Putting Certified, Golf Academy of America

Darren Trainer, Coutour Putting Certified, Golf Academy of America 5 Most Efficient Power Factors :
Body Mechanics You wana be longest person in your foursome This the way how you can SMOKE!!!!!! Introduction

Why do people want to hit the ball longer in the game of golf? Distance and accuracy are always important in this sport. In today’s game, PGA tournament courses are increasing in length and make the amateur want to play longer courses as well. Golfers strive to hit the ball farther and pride themselves on distance off the tee. Members of a foursome do not want to be the “Shorty” in the group.
In golf, the better players are not only tremendously accurate but also skilled in generating power and distance. Teaching professionals should teach their students to hit the ball longer and avoid the belief, “Shorten your swing and don’t try to hit the ball too hard”. Our theory emphasizes power with 5 power factors in the golf swing. These include jump, spin kick, rotation, weight shift and load. Weight shift and rotation are well-known factors but jump, spin kick and load are new concepts of power sources that we have developed. We illustrate these power sources by examining the techniques of PGA Tour professionals. Bubba Watson simulates a “jumper”, Dustin Johnson a “kicker”, Tiger Woods a “rotator”, Ernie Els a “shifter” and Sergio Garcia, a “loader”.
All of these pros hit the ball a long way but have different swing characteristics which make them unique. We will analyze and discuss the dominant power factor in each player’s swing. Moreover we want to provide instructors with a method of identifying golfers’ strong and weak power factors and how they can strengthen the good factors and improve the weaker power factors. We understand that it is difficult for amateur golfers to successfully possess all 5 power factors like a professional. However we want to empower instructors to improve golfers’ power skills with our theory. Like the 5 Ball Flight Laws, the power factors affect a mix of distance and direction but are predominantly focused on distance and power. We will focus on direction later with our presentation of The Stair Theory. Jumper
Bubba Watson

Most of amatuer golfer’s weight on the heel with a lot of knee flex(more than 70%)

Jumper: Bubba Watson
• One of the longest driver on tour
• The best jumper on tour
• Athletic setup for jump
• Enormous head drop at impact
• High finish for the final stage of jump
• Right heel high gradually during the backswing
• Both heel off the ground at impact just like volleyball player Early extension starts from here for most amatuers because of improper setup(the weight toward right toe instead of the right heel. Weight should go right heel and plant the right foot on the ground at the top. Right after the top(transition), left foot starts planting on the ground. It is essential for stable body for jump. A lot of golfers still have weight too much on the right foot. Sometime, amateur golfers feel they jump too much, but that is not jump. That is early extension. The majority of weight makes left foot planting on the ground. Not only is it good for jump, but also rotation, weightshift, and kick. Difference between volleyball and golf is the direction to jump. Jump which is the vertical action should mix well with weight shift, kick and rotation which are the horizontal actions. Differences : Time to smash the ball. However, jump itself is the same mechanics.

One of the toughest power motions. A lot of golfers feel they jump , but most of them has early extension. It happens early time during the swing. The jump is the powerful vertical motion which should come with the proper horizontal actions which are the weight shift, kick, and rotation. Good Jumper: the motion of jump itself is the vertical
motion. It must combine with horizental motions witch
are rotation, weight shift, and kick. Test for the jump
1. Vertical jump test
2. Balance test Drills for no Jumper
(1)Vertical Jump drill
(2)Squad with heels up drill
(3)Heel on the ball and weight move to the right heel drill Jin Yoo Golf Studio How to apply "jump" for golf Kicker:
Dustin Johnson Kicker: Dustin Johnson
• The best kicker on tour
• One of the longest hitter on tour
• Extreme bowed wrist at the top-too closed club face
• Making square the club face, he needs more than hip turn. KICK TO THE LEFT
• Kick to the right first during the downswing
• After impact, he kicks to the left. Both knees put together at the finish
• Making huge space between the ball and body for hands passing at the impact
• He does not use a lot of weight shift but kick for the horizontal motion David Beckham is more upright for watching the ball at the impact because he stands up straight before he runs and approaches to the ball at the setup. However, the angle between lower body and lower body for both players are almost same. The greater angle between upper body and lower body, the more space both players kick freely inside-out. Very similar pictures for both players: Touching the both knee means that players inside kick follow through. Angle of the right foot shows that he kick so hard to the left side of his body. David Beckham is the special free kicker. The characteristic of his kick is inside approach to the ball, outside kick at impact and inside follow through. It means he spins the ball right to left power draw kick. Dustin Johnson, himself, interviewed he tried not to pull and he claimed himself as a natural drawl. Not only does his enormous kick help his lower body so fast and clear to the left side, but also it helps the wide closed club face(unbelievable bowed wrist) at the top to square at the impact. How to apply “kick” for golf Good Kicker: Too much Kick motion which is the horizontal approach to the ball may causes upper body and lower body separated too much and make too deep and low upper body during the follow through. Jump motion will help not to make the upper body go low during the follow through. Drills for no kicker
(1) Right knee touch the left knee with spin kick drill
(2) Hip touch wall with spin kick drill
(3) Spin kick with maintaining primary angle drill Test for the Kick
1.Touching knee test
2.Left leg balance test
3.Right ankle inversion\eversion test ROTATIONER: Tiger Woods
• The best rotationer with the great torque(x-facter)
• Strength and flexibility combined the best
• 30 degree hip rotation and 110 degree shoulder rotation at the top
• Too much torque sometimes causes his upper body stay behind during the downswing
• He tries not to jump on his new swing and stay tall and right heel down at the impact because he squat too much sometime with right heel up
• In newer swing, hands inside at the take away for more connection between his left arm and chest makes him turn his shoulder freely. Rotationer :
Tiger Woods Bad flexibility and improper swing motion prevent the rotation(x-factor, shoulder rotation). Most of amateur has not enough hip rotation and upper and lower body separation to make the torque. Sometimes, good players who have the fast hip turn have trouble to make the club square. It causes flipping hands motion.
Most of amateur has not enough hip rotation and separation between lower body and upper body and looses a lot of power
Baseball player hit the ball from the front. If they turn the shoulder a lot, they cannot even see the ball from the pitcher. They minimize rotation at the top, but they use the great amount torque at the down swing. Because of wide stance and right foot behind, unlike the base ball pitcher, baseball batter has more rotation and less weight shift than golfer and baseball pitcher.
Overall, golfer and batter have the same rotation move. (Separation of lower and upper body) How to apply “Rotation” for golfers
Good Rotationer
(1) Bump(weight shift followed)
(2) Baseball hitter drill
(3) Too much rotation causes hands too behind the body. Club loading during the downswing(Chop) with rotation will make more power.
Drills for “no Rotationer”
(1) Rotation with stick drill
(2) Pulling hands drill
(3) Maintaining right leg with towel drill
Test for the Rotation
1. Upper body and lower body seperation test
2. Core mobility and stability test Shifter: Ernie Els
• The best weight shifter
• The best tempo swing picked by picked by top 100 teachers Oct 2010 in Golf Magazine
• Big easy-the smoother, the longer for him
• Lateral movement is controlled by right leg stability during back swing
• Lateral movement is controlled by left leg stability during forward swing
• Not enough kick to forward sometimes causes hang back issue(down the line #8)

A lot of golfers have trouble with width of feet.
Narrow stance causes more rotational move
Wide stance causes more lateral move
A lot of golfers have stack because they do not move to the right side enough and sway because they do not turn the right hip enough and right leg straight up.
Unlike golfer, baseball pitcher throws the ball down to the catcher; therefore he does not make the secondary spine angle. Outfielder’s throw motion is more like the golfer’s swing.
A lot of golfer has reverse spine angle because of no lateral movement from the left to the right not making the secondary angle Difference
The arch of these two motions is different. Golf swing is more circular, but baseball pitching is more ellipses. Right foot goes forward. Therefore, baseball pitching is less back swing, more follow-throw, and more weight shift, less rotation. Not like pitcher, golf’s right leg stay on the ground. Overall, these two motions are very similar in terms of weight shift.
How to apply “Baseball pitcher Weight shift” for golfers
Weight shifter
(1) Rotation practice might be needed. Baseball hitter drill will be good for the rotation. Both feet together and swing drill is the good drill for rotation.
(2) Chop motion should be followed because of the separation between the body and club.
Drills for no weight shifter
(1) Passing stick drill
(2) Belt pulling with crossed hand drill
(3) Baseball pitcher motion drill
Test for the shift
1. Lower body lateral movemet test
2. Right ankle inversion/eversion test
3. Left ankle inversion/eversion test Shifter:
Ernie Els Loader: Sergio Garcia
• The best loader on tour
• The best power move picked by top 100 Teachers Oct 2010 in Golf Magazine
• 4 iron for 250yard at the playoff for the Fedex cup
• The loader is normally good at the iron shot because of the delofting down blow shot
• Pulling the club instead of rotation at the top because of preventing too much inside swing path.
• Not rotating shoulder a lot during the backswing and downswing for the club loading.
• Not a lot of weight shift preventing disconnection with body and arm
• His left wrist is 2 times flexible than normal people(60 degree upright)
If the loader turns his left shoulder his axe should be the right on plane. Sergio’s shoulder and forearm rotation make his left arm straighter than loader’s left arm.
In Terms of kinematics, the great potential energy is ready to be transferred to the kinetic energy.
“Feel the weight of the club weight at the top” is that a lot of instructors teach their students. It is good advice because that mass is the one of the factors for the potential energy. You feel more of the weight at the top, therefor you will generate more speed at the impact. Both player and loader pull his club and axe with his left arm because they need to maintain the right arm angle. Adding the primary angle for the loader and squatting for the golfer maximize the club and axe speed. Right arms are folded because they are not ready to release their tools yet. They are just waiting and waiting for the moment of truth. The moment of truth
Now they release we the right hand which has folded so long. There is the huge torque between left hand which wants to pull and explode all the way back and down and right hand which wants to wait and wait right before impact.
Differences: The loader does not have lateral movement (no horizontal motion). He has only up and down motion. The club loading for the golf is more likely vertical action which uses “potential energy at the top”.
In kinematics, kinetic energy is “E(energy)=m(mass)*v(velocity)^2”. The amount of potential energy is equal to the amount of kinetic energy. It means that “mv^2=mgh”. Therefore, the height and weight of golf club themselves are essential factor for the velocity.
Both golfer and chopper use this energy with pulling and loading the club with arm and body.
How to apply “load” for golf
Loader: load action itself is the vertical action. They need to focus on combination and connection with body and hands such as rotation which are the horizontal motion of the golf swing.
Drills for “no loader”
1) Lowering left hand drill
2) Pulling hands drill
3) Preventing right arm straighten drill
Test for the loader
1. Right and left thumbes test
2. Right wrist flexibility test
3. Left wrist up test Loader :
Sergio Garcia Jin Yoo’s 5 Power Factor analysis by Moon Choi Player Profile
• Playing Ability Test - Passed
• Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) - Level 3 - Certified
• Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) – Level 2 Fitness, Junior, Medial - Certified
• USGTF – Level 3
• Pro Contract with Kenich Golf - Korea
• Staff of “Mad for Titleist”
• Height - 6’1”; Weight – 175lbs
• Advanced level golfer
Physical Limitations
We tested Jin Yoo’s flexibility to assess any possible physical limitations. From a standing position, he did not have any trouble touching his toes. However when sitting on the floor, with his legs spread, he was unable to touch his toes. Therefore, we concluded that he did not have flexibility issues in his calf and hamstring muscles. However he did have lower back mobility, stability and pain issues.
Swing Tendencies
Since Jin has back pain issues, he has a tendency to “hang back” at the top of the swing. We decided to develop a “jump” motion during the backswing and “kick” motion during the downswing because our main goal is to prevent hanging back and to maintain the primary spine angle during the entire swing.
Jump Factor
• Weight is on the toes at set up.
• Proper set-up and posture.
• Weight transfers to back heel gradually. Good move.
• No early extension motion from the setup to the top of backswing. This readies Jin for the jump.
• Right heel comes off the ground and whole body slightly drops for the jump.
• Left knee begins to straighten.
• Right knee gradually bends for the jump.
• Jin has a balanced finish but his head height is not enough for the full jump.
• Too much horizontal movement (kick to the left and improper weight shift) causes not enough jump for the finish (see face on view).
Overall: 7(Jin) of 10(Bubba)
Kick Factor
• Maintains spine angle perfectly.
• Hips move back making Jin ready for the kick.
• Great job touching hip line during the downswing which ensures the kick to the left side.
• Left knee straightens up gradually for the proper kick.
• Right knee bends gradually for the proper kick.
Main characteristics of his new swing:
• Spine and hip line is almost same during the swing.
• Right heel points to the left which means he spin-kicked powerfully.
• #6-8: Kick (red arrows) is inside-outside –inside meaning huge spin to the left leg.
• No hanging back because of spin kick and stable spine angle. Therefore his chest is facing straight forward.
Overall: 7(Jin) of 10(Dustin)
Weight Shift Factor
• Nice lateral weight shift controlled by the stable right leg.
• No sway.
• Right leg does not straighten.
• Good hip bump action
• Weight still slightly behind.
• Weight is still back for #7 causing right hip to still remain too low.
• Hip stays back for #8 but no hanging back.
Overall: 6(Jin) of 10(Ernie Els)
Club loading Factor
• Great start of load at impact.
• Left arm straight.
• Right arm folds gradually.
• Great loading action: left hand slightly lower than right hand.
• Right arm starts to straighten at ball.
• Powerful release directly after right arm straightens up after finishing the club loading.
Overall: 7.5(Jin) of 10(Sergio Garcia) Rotation Factor
• Big shoulder turn but hip has not turned as much.
• Great coil.
• Look at the red sign.
• Even though has a great x-factor at the top, he loses that torque.
• His lower back has mobility limitation, stability weakness and pain. Because of this, his shoulder does not have a lot of stable power to keep that coil.
• Hip and shoulder is open at the impact. Sometimes, Jin flips his hands to square the clubface or he pushes the ball right.
Overall: 5(Jin Yoo) of 10(Tiger Woods)
Jin Yoo is quite a long hitter averaging 280 yards with his driver and 180 yards with his 6-iron. The analysis confirms the same. He has good statistics for 4 of the power sources but not as good numbers for the rotation factor during the downswing. We therefore will focus on his shoulders during the downswing. He should work on keeping the torque right before impact for maximum power. He also must improve the weight shift factor. Jin should work on rotation drills for improvement.
Instead of maximizing his chopping, jumping, and kicking factors which are already at high levels of proficiency, we advise he practice the rotation and weight shift power sources. His vertical motion (jumping and chopping) is really good. We suggest he practice and focus on his horizontal movement (weight shift and rotation).

The 5 Power Factors Theory is closely connected to and based on the Stair Theory (also developed by Jin Yoo, Moon Choi). The Stair Theory is focused on club mechanics, direction, and swing plane. Conversely, the 5 power factors are associated with body mechanics and how to generate more speed and power. Like the Stair Theory, the power factors consist of vertical and horizontal swing motions. Jump and load are the vertical motions. Kick, weight shift, and rotation are the horizontal motions. We envision these to be similar to Ben Hogan’s famous mirror theory which combines a vertical and horizontal circle simultaneously.
Jump and kick are closely related because they both combine to create efficient power through the use of the lower body (Jump-vertical, kick-horizontal) during the downswing. However, weight shift and load must act together in unison and the correct sequence for proper body coordination. For example, if a golfer has trouble with fast hips and a quick weight shift, they will have a tendency for their hands not to be connected with their body (weight shift-horizontal, load-vertical).However, the most important power factor of the golf swing is the rotation. It is the priming for the jump and kick. Without the rotation, jump and kick cannot cooperate each other. Speaking of body coordination, weight shift and club loading will not spark without rotation as well Therefore some players need to practice vertical motions during the start of the transition while others need to practice horizontal motions at the transition depending on their swing plane and length of arc. We will address this when discussing the Stair Theory. The best players in the world are highly skilled at all 5 power factors but excel at one factor more than the others. For example, we have seen that Ernie Els cannot kick like Dustin Johnson but Dustin Johnson does not have the ability to shift his weight like Ernie Els. No player performs each factor at 100% but they still do all 5 power factors at a high level. Without each key power factor, it would be impossible for Bubba, Dustin and Tiger to hit 350yard drives, for Els to generate his graceful 300+ yard swing and for Sergio to hit his 4-iron 250 yards. From a teaching perspective, the instructor must not teach all power factors at the same time regardless of whether the student is an amateur or a professional. If a student does the “loading” motion really well, you need to decide whether to focus solely on this motion to imitate Sergio Garcia or to develop the student’s other weaker power factors. In our opinion, the professional player may learn and incorporate each power factor more easily without disrupting their mechanics, tempo, rhythm, and timing. However, for the amateur, you need to help him or her to diagnose and develop their weakest power factors. It will be impossible to achieve 100% of each power factor but you can provide the student with the joy of gaining more distance by improving their factors by as little as 25 or 50%. Conclusion for Five Most Efficient Power Factors Opening with writers' main concepts

The maximum power should be developed when ALL FIVE POWER FACTORS come together. Main concept

1. Jump(vertical) and kick(horizontal) work together
because of lower body motion

2. Weight shift and club loading work together
because of the body coordination

3. Rotation is the key factor which amplify and connect
all 4 power factors.
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