Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

paraphrasing by N.Keskin

what ,how ,why and tools
by

on 27 March 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of paraphrasing by N.Keskin

Step 2
Outline the passage or
subdivide the information
into smaller section.

What is Paraphrasing?
Write your own definition of paraphrasing

Paraphrasing 1
we paraphrase
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes
Paraphasing

The End

Paraphasing

Purdue Online Writing Lab:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting:
http://mciu.org/~spjvweb/sumparquo.html
English Language Center Study Zone:
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/reading/index.htm
Academic Connections 3, 2010. Pearson Education, Inc.
Carol Bailey University of Wolverhampton,c.bailey@wlv.ac.uk




Resources

Paraphasing

YOU HAVE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED THIS LESSON ON
PARAPHRASING! REMEMBER PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT!

CONGRATULATIONS!

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share:
Change the statements / passages using the techniques/tools for paraphasing.
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes
Read it if you are asked.

Interactive Exercise 7

Paraphasing

37

Paraphrasing

Necati Keskin

In addition to replacing key words, change the structure of the original sentences by
changing the order and structure of the ideas or argument.
changing the structure of the sentences.
breaking them into shorter sentences, or combining simple sentences into compound and complex sentences or vice versa..
Avoid using the original sentence structure as much as possible.Change the sentences to reflect yours, not the author’s.
Keep the length approximately the same as the original.


Hints for Paraphrasing

Paraphasing

Only begin paraphrasing when you thoroughly understand the context of what you are paraphrasing.
Using synonyms/antonyms is an essential paraphrasing technique. Use them as much as possible.
Be aware that sentences and paragraphs carry meaning. Meaning in English is not always at word-level. Not all synonyms have the same meaning or are used in the same way.
Make sure that the synonyms or antonyms you use in your paraphrased version do not change the meaning.
Avoid selecting words that you are not familiar with.
Avoid using synonyms for special terms. (eg. microeconomics, thermodynamic etc)





Hints for Paraphrasing


Paraphasing

The fact that adult Europeans are twice as likely as Asians to tolerate lactose in milk reflects a much longer history of dairy farming in the West.



In comparison to Europeans, adult Asians have an inability to tolerate lactose in milk. This is because Europeans have had dairy farms longer than Asians.
.

Combine Techniques


Paraphasing

The teacher understood students’ difficulties and they appreciated it. However, the rest of the faculty neglected to recognize the teacher’s dedication to the students



Although the rest of the faculty ignored her dedication to students, her understanding of their difficulties was appreciated by them.

Combine Techniques

Paraphasing

After he ate lunch, Mike took a nap.



After eating lunch, Mike slept a little.

Combine Techniques
Change to a phrase & add synonyms or definitions

Paraphasing

The use of renewable sources could stop the destruction of the rainforests.



Using renewable sources could stop people destroying the rainforests.

Combine Techniques
Changing parts of speech&Word formation

Paraphasing

The destruction of the rainforests could be stopped by the use of renewable sources.



The use of renewable sources could stop the destruction of the rainforests.

Combine Techniques
Changing voices & Moving phrases

Paraphasing

Overuse of ground water could cause widespread dryness.



Widespread dryness could be a result of the overuse of ground water.

Moving phrases

Paraphasing

A hotel employee will carry your bags.



Your bags will be carried by a hotel employee.


Changing voices


Paraphasing

Use an adverb instead of an adjective
Use a verb to replace a noun.

Caveman is an accurate typist.



Caveman types accurately.

Change Word Forms

Paraphasing

The furious young woman ignored her boyfriend’s phone call.




The furious young woman didn’t answer the phone when her boyfriend called.

Make a positive sentence into a negative one.

Paraphasing


The tiger disappeared into the trees. 




The big cat vanished into the forest.  

Replace words with definitions/synonyms
(words with a similar meaning&definition)

Paraphasing

Overuse of ground water could lead to pervasive drought.




Overuse of ground water could cause widespread dryness.

Replace words with synonyms. (words with a similar meaning)

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share:
Change the statements using some techniques/tools for paraphasing.
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes
Write it on the board if you are asked.

Interactive Exercise 5

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share: 3 minutes

Write the techniques/tools for paraphrasing
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes

Interactive Exercise 4

Paraphasing

Methods to rewrite / restate something in your own way


PARAPHRASING
Tools/Techniques

Paraphasing

Step 1. Reread the original passage until you fully understand it.
Step 2. Outline the passage or subdivide the information into smaller sections
Step 3. write key words or phrases to remember the essential ideas mentioned in the original passage of your paraphrase.
Step 4.Put the original aside before writing your paraphrase .
Step 5. Check your version with the original to make sure that your version retains the original meaning without plagiarizing
Step 6. Be sure to cite appropriately and integrate the paraphrase into the text effectively.

So How to Paraphrase?

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share: 3 minutes

Write how we paraphrase
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes

Interactive Exercise 3

Paraphasing

Because paraphrasing
helps the use of another’s ideas to enhance your own work
is necessary to create effective summaries, prepare for tests, answer essay test questions, and avoid plagiarism when researching reports
is one of the most fruitful methods for mastering language
helps to prepare and comprehend questions better
helps to clarify meaning
helps us store information into long-term memory.

Why Do We Paraphrase?

Paraphasing

“Paraphrasing
involves changing a text so that it is quite different from the source, while retaining the meaning.” Bailey (2006)
“ Paraphrasing is
making different word choices and re-arranging words in such a way that maintains the same meaning, but sounds different enough that readers will not be reminded of the original writer’s words. “ Tony Cimasko  And, finally,
Paraphrasing
contains all or the main points of the original text
is quite different from the original source, while retaining the meaning.
is around the same length as the original
includes a citation

What is Paraphrasing?

Paraphasing

Paraphrasing
recreates or restates author’s passage in your own words.
Paraphrasing is
the process of rewriting information in different words and structure.
Paraphrasing is
borrowing ideas, language, or phrases from another person’s text; and writing them using your own language and sentence patterns.
Paraphrasing is
the use of another’s ideas to enhance your own work.
When done well, it is much more concise than the original.


What is Paraphrasing?

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share: 3 minutes

Write your own definition of paraphrasing
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes

Interactive Exercise 1

Paraphasing

The goal of this workshop is to provide participants with an overview of how to explicitly teach/learn paraphrasing in the classroom using active learning strategies
By the end, you will know…
the definition of paraphrasing
why we paraphrase
how to paraphrase
paraphrasing techniques
tips for successful paraphrasing
the most common problems

Objectives

Paraphasing



PARAPHRASING

BORROWING LANGUAGE AND IDEAS

IN YOUR OWN WORDS...



Paraphrasing

46

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE
A gentle small animal, the koala uses only its colour to protect itself from its
enemies. Making no nest, the koala just sits where branches fork in a tree, although without a tail, it cannot keep itself balanced like a bird. The koala eats only the leaves of gum trees. If a koala consumes all the available leaves, itwill not look for food outside its own area. Instead, it will remain where it is and die of starvation

ORIGINAL PASSAGE
The koala is a gentle little animal. It is almost defenseless. Only its color protects it from enemies. The koala makes no nest. It just sits in the forked branches of a tree. Unlike a bird, it cannot balance itself with its tail—because it has no tail. It likes gum trees the best because it lives entirely on the leaves of the tree. Sometimes the supply of its special diet is used up. The koala, rather than seek food elsewhere, will stay in its own area and starve to death.

Example Please paraphrase the passage

paraphrasing

45

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE
The koala bear lives in Australia. It is really a “Teddy Bear” that is alive. It has thick gray fur that feels as soft as that of the toy bear. The koala has special features: big head, large ears, and little, dark eyes without expression. As black as shiny leather, the koala’s nose appears to be too large for his face. Long Beach City College WRSC


ORIGINAL PASSAGE
The koala bear of Australia is a living “Teddy Bear.” Its thick coat of gray fur is just as soft as the beloved toy. The koala has a large head, big ears and small, dark eyes that look at you without expression. Its nose, as black as patent leather, seems too big for the rest of its face.
Long Beach City College WRSC


Example Please paraphrase the passage

Paraphasing

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE

The author beleives that students need self-confidence to succeed in life. One of the key roles of the teacher is to build self-confidence in each student. When students are confident in themselves, they can deal with difficulties.

ORIGINAL PASSAGE

The role of the teacher is to help children gain self-confidence. Teachers must improve students' self-confidence so they can be successful. Children will be able to face challenges with confidence.

Example Please phraphrase the passage

Paraphasing

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE

According to the lecture, teamwork can lead to laziness. Some group members usually just watch instead of participating, or they won't finish the part of the project that they are responsible for. Their laziness forces the other members to do more work and could cause the group to fail

ORIGINAL PASSAGE

Teamwork can be bad experience when there are lazy people in the group. Lazy people tend to sit and watch instead of helping their team members. They can cause the whole group to fail when they don't finish their part of the project.

Example Please phraphrase the passage

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share: 3 minutes

Write tips for successful paraphrasing
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes
Explain if you are asked.

Interactive Exercise 6

Paraphasing


The government raised the excise duty on tobacco to deter people from smoking.



To discourage smoking, the excise duty on tobacco was increased by the goverment.



.

Combine Techniques
Changing parts of speech,voice &replace with synonynms

Paraphasing

The house that is across the street is old.



The house across the street is old.
The house on the other side of the street is old.
The dwelling on the other side of the road is ancient.

Combine Techniques
Change to a phrase & add synonyms or definitions

Paraphasing

Overuse of ground water could lead to pervasive drought.




Overuse of ground water could cause widespread shortages.

Combine Techniques
(words with a similar meaning ,word formation)

Paraphasing

Although it was raining, Bob walked to work.


It was raining, but Bob walked to work.
It was raining; however, Bob walked to work.
Despite the rain, Bob went to work on foot.

Change Discourse Markers (Transitions)

Paraphasing

After he studied, John took a nap.

After studying, John took a nap.

The house that is across the street is new.

The house across the street is new.



Change from a Clause to a Phrase


Paraphasing


The stallion was content with the mare.




The male horse was happy with the female horse.

Replace words with definitions/synonyms
(words with a similar meaning&definition)

Paraphasing

Your bags will be carried by a hotel employee.





Your luggage will be picked up by a bell boy.

Replace words with synonyms. (words with a similar meaning)

Paraphasing

Replace words with synonyms/antonyms (see changing sentence structure below re antonyms)
Change Word Forms
Change sentence structures
Change from a positive sentence to a negative one (or vice versa)
Change from a Clause to a Phrase (or vice versa), moving phrases
Change from Quoted Speech to Indirect Speech (or vice versa)
Change from Active Voice to Passive Voice (or vice versa)
Interpret Meaning
Combine Techniques


Commonly used paraphrasing
tools/techniques

Paraphasing

Think-Pair-Share: 3 minutes

Write why we paraphrase
Pair up with one of the other participants, share and compare your notes

Interactive Exercise 2

Introduction to Academic
English

Paraphrasing

Sofl 101 U4 Feb..2014

Inst.Necati KESKİN

School of Foreign Languages

Paraphasing

Paraphasing

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE
According to the article there has been a change in economies in countries like the United States, Germany and Japan from industrial to service economies involved in knowledge and information. Because /As manufacturing shifts/moves to countries where wages are low. Knowledge and information technologies are very important for the developed countries.(Laudon & Laudon 31)

ORIGINAL PASSAGE
The United States, Germany, Japan and other industrial nations are being transformed from industrial economies, whilst manufacturing has been moving to low wage countries. In a knowledge and information based economy, knowledge and information are the key ingredients in creating wealth. From:Laudon & Laudon (2000) Management information systems: managing the digital firm, p 31

Example Please phraphrase the passage

Paraphasing

POSSIBLE PARAPHRASE
Research suggests that the use of a helmet is the key to reducing bicycling fatalities, which are due to head injuries 75% of the time. By cushioning the head upon impact, wearing a helmet can reduce head injuries by as much as 85%, saving the lives of hundreds of victims annually, half of whom are school children ("Bike Helmets" 348)

ORIGINAL PASSAGE
Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.

Example Please phraphrase the passage

Paraphasing

Which one is the best?
a. Richard Burton and his friend looked for the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. The men split up.
b. Richard Burton and his friend looked for the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. The men split up.
c. In 1857, Richard Burton and John Speke searched for the great lakes on Ptolemy’s map, but they had to split up when Burton was ill.
d. Two men from Britain looked for the great lakes but had to split up because one was ill.

In 1857, a British expedition led by Richard Burton and John Speke set out to find the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. After reaching Lake Tanganyika, the two men split up because Burton was ill. (Pollard 19)

Now you try to find the best!


Paraphasing

38

Paraphrasing

Necati Keskin

Include all important ideas mentioned in the original passage. Do not change the meaning by adding your own thoughts or views.
Replace as many of the words as possible with appropriate synonyms or antonyms.
Cite appropriately and integrate the paraphrase into the text effectively.
Practice using as many of the paraphrasing techniques as possible.

Hints for Paraphrasing

Paraphasing

I am ready for Lunch

The wolf said, “I am ready for lunch.”
The sheep looked very worried.
The wolf complained about being hungry, which made the sheep extremely anxious.



Interpret Meaning…….Identify the underlying meaning of a statement.

Paraphasing

Excess stress accelerates aging.



Aging is accelerated by excess stress.


Changing voices


we paraphrase
to paraphrase
for
successful paraphrasing
for paraphrasing
for paraphrasing
Paraphrasing

recreates or restates
author’s passage
in
your own words
.

Paraphrasing
involves
changing a text
so that it is quite
different from the source,
while
retaining the meaning.”
Bailey (2006)

Paraphrasing is
the use of another’s ideas to
enhance your own work
.
When done well, it is much
more concise than the original
.
“ Paraphrasing is
making different word choices
and
r
e-arranging words
in such a way
that maintains the same meaning,
but sounds different enough that
readers will not be reminded of
the original writer’s words. “
Tony Cimasko
And, finally,
Paraphrasing

contains all or the main points of the original text.
is quite different from the original source,
while retaining the meaning.
is around the same length as the original.
includes a citation.
Write why we paraphrase
Pair up with one of the other participants,
share and compare your notes

Paraphrasing
helps
the use of
another’s ideas
to develop your
own work.

Paraphrasing
is necessary
to
create effective

summaries,
prepare
for
tests
,
answer questions
,
and
avoid plagiarism
when researching reports

Paraphrasing is one of
the most
fruitful

methods for
mastering language

Paraphrasing
helps to
clarify meaning
and
store information
into
long-term memory.

to paraphrase
Step 1
Reread
the original passage
until you
fully understand

Step 2
Outline
the passage or
subdivide
the information
into smaller section

Step 3
write key words or phrases
to rememember the essential ideas
mentioned
in the original
passage of your paraphrase
Step 4
Put the original aside
before
wring your paraphrase

Step 5
Check your version
with the original
to make sure that
your version
retains
the original meaning.
Finally
Be sure to
cite appropriately
and
integrate the paraphrase
into text effectively

for paraphrasing
Replace
words
with
synonyms/antonyms
Change
word forms

Change
sentence structures
from
a
positive sentence
to a
negative one
(or vice versa)
a
clause to a phrase
(or vice versa),
moving phrases

active voice
to
passive voic
e (or vice versa)

Combined tools
for
successful paraphrasing
In addition to replacing key words,
change the structure
of the original sentences by
changing the order
and structure of the ideas or argument.
changing the structure
of the sentences.
breaking them into shorter
sentences, or combining simple sentences into compound and complex sentences or vice versa..
Avoid using the original sentence
structure as much as possible.
Keep the length approximately the same as the original.


Include all important
ideas mentioned in the original passage.
Do
not change the meaning
by adding your own thoughts or views.
Only begin paraphrasing when you
thoroughly understand the context
of what you are paraphrasing.
Cite appropriately
and
integrate the paraphrase
into the text effectively.
Practice using as many
of the paraphrasing techniques as possible.

Replace as many of the words as possible
with appropriate synonyms or antonyms.
Be aware that
sentences and paragraphs carry meaning. Not all synonyms
have the same meaning or are used in the same way.
Make sure that the synonyms or antonyms you use in your paraphrased version
do not change the meaning.
Avoid selecting words that you are
not familiar with
.
Avoid using synonyms
for special terms
. (eg. microeconomics, thermodynamic etc)

Purdue Online Writing Lab:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting:
http://mciu.org/~spjvweb/sumparquo.html
English Language Center Study Zone:
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/reading/index.htm
Using Sources Effectively: Strengthening Your Writing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Robert A. Harris. Los Angeles, California: Pyrczak Publishers, 2002
Necati Keskin
Examples:
Source:
Unless steps are taken to provide a predictable and stable energy supply in the face of growing demand, the nation may be in danger of sudden power losses or even extended blackouts, thus damaging our industrial and information-based economies. – John Doe, 1999, p.231.

Examples:
Source:
Unless steps are taken to provide a predictable and stable energy supply in the face of growing demand,

the nation may be in danger of sudden power losses or even extended blackouts,

thus damaging our industrial and information-based economies.
– John Doe, 1999, p.231.

Examples:
Source:
Unless

steps
are taken to provide a
predictable and stable energy supply
in the face of
growing demand
, the nation may be in
danger
of sudden
power losses
or even extended blackouts, thus
damaging
our industrial and information-based
economies
. – John Doe, 1999, p.231.

Correct paraphrase:
Doe (1999) believes
that we must find a more reliable source of energy if we are to have a dependable electricity supply. Without this, the nation’s economic base may be damaged by blackouts
(p.231)
.


The inadequate paraphrase is
guilty of plagiarism
even though the material is cited correctly. The writer has used
too many word-for-word phases

from the source. Also,
the order of the ideas is unchanged
from the source.

Inadequate paraphrase: WHY?
Doe (1999) recommends that the government take action
to provide a predictable and stable energy supply

because of constantly
growing demand.
Otherwise, we may be in
danger of losing power
or even experiencing
extended blackouts.
These circumstances could
damage our industrial and information-based economy.
(p.231).
More than half
of the women who
attended
the one-day meeting were in business with their

spouses.
The majority of the women
who
went
to the one-day meeting were in business with their
husbands.
The expenditure
needed to
combat
climate change will require changes to the federal government's
budget.
The money
needed to
fight
climate change will require
changes to the federal government's
financial plans
.
Abuzettin is an
accurate

typist
.
Abuzettin
types
accurately
The destruction of the rainforests

could be stopped
by the use of renewable sources
.
(passive voice)
The use of renewable sources

could stop

the

destruction of the rainforests
.
(active voice)

Excess stress

accelerates

aging
.
Aging

is accelerated

by excess stress
.

Moving phrases
Overuse of ground water
could
cause

widespread dryness
.
Widespread dryness
could
be a result of

the overuse of ground water
.
A positive sentence into a negative one.

The furious young woman
ignored
her boyfriend’s phone call.
The furious young woman
didn’t answer
the phone when her boyfriend called.
The teacher understood students’ difficulties and they appreciated it.

However, the rest of the faculty neglected to recognize the teacher’s dedication to the students.
Although the rest of the faculty ignored her dedication to students,

her understanding of their difficulties was appreciated by them.
The government
raised
the excise duty on tobacco to
deter
people from smoking.
To
discourage
smoking, the excise duty on tobacco was
increased
by the government.
Full transcript