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World History EOC Review
Transcript of World History EOC Review
: justified Glorious Revolution. Locke stated that
subjects have a right to rebel against an oppressive government
William Blackstone: summarized English law
World History EOC Review
The Rise of River Valley Civilizations
The "Classical Era" in the West
Let's end where we began...
Remember this video???
See if it makes more sense now...
1. The earliest humans survived by hunting and gathering their food. They used tools of wood, bone and stone. Used fire.
2. About 10,000 years ago, people in the Middle East developed the first agriculture and domesticated animals during the Neolithic Revolution.
3. A civilization is a form of human culture in which some people live in cities, have complex social institutions, use some form of writing and are skilled at using science and technology.
4. The first civilizations arose in fertile river valleys, where favorable geographic conditions allowed farmers to grow a surplus of food.
5. The Sumerians in Mesopotamia invented the wheel, sailboat and cuneiform writing. The Egyptians developed an advanced civilization along the banks of the Nile. They built large stone pyramids for the afterlife of their ruler - the pharaoh - and developed a form of writing known as hieroglyphics.
6. Other early civilizations developed along the Indus River on the Indian Subcontinent and along the Huang He (Yellow River) in China.
7. The earliest civilizations were theocracies and monarchies. In a
, religions leaders govern. In a
, a hereditary ruler heads the government.
8. Judaism, the religion of the ancient Hebrews (Jews), was the first religion to worship one God.
Culture: A people's way of life - their foods, clothing, customs and beliefs. Culture is a learned behavior passed from one generation to the next.
Civilization: Advanced form of society in which some people live in cities, have complex institutions, use some form of writing, and are skilled in science and technology
WRITE SOME EXAMPLES OF EACH!!!
RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
The first civilizations developed along rivers with fertile soil from periodic flooding. Here, farmers were able to grow a surplus of food, allowing for the rise of civilization.
the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; invented the sailboat, irrigation, the wheel, calendar, and bronze
developed along the Nile River in North Africa; Egyptian society was ruled by a powerful pharaoh and built pyramids
the Indus River deposited rich soil over the neighboring plains
China's first civilization emerged in the fertile plains along the Huang He (Yellow River)
The Neolithic Revolution occurred in the Middle East 10,000 years ago. People saw they could obtain food by planting seeds.
What kind of effects would this cause?
: People began to change from hunters and gatherers to producers of food.
Domestication of Animals
: People learned to domesticate animals such as goats, sheep and cattle.
Why is this important?
: People no longer had to wander in search of food and could now establish settlements with permanent homes.
Judaism was the religion of the ancient Hebrews. It began in the ancient lands now known as Israel. Moses led the Jews out of Egyptian slavery.
Judaism: the first religion to teach monotheism - the belief in one God.
Torah (Old Testament): History of Jewish people is told the the first books of the Christian Bible. This contains their history and the law of God.
Ten Commandments: Established a moral code of conduct; emphasizes living justly, belief in one God, honoring one's parents, not killing or stealing.
Nile River Valley
Is this seen anywhere in our lives today?
1. Persia grew large and powerful through military conquests, building good roads, collecting tribute, and
among its subjects.
2. The city-state of Greece grew prosperous through trade. Greek culture was characterized by questions spirit. The Greeks made contributions to art, architecture, literature, history, drama, philosophy, and mathematics.
3. The city-state of Athens developed the world's first
. In this system, all Athenian citizens participated in important political decisions. Not all Athenians were citizens. Women, slaves, and foreign residents could not vote.
4. Rome was the heir to the Greek civilization. Early Romans developed a
form of government, based on elected representatives and the "rule of law."
5. As Rome expanded, it changed into an empire. The Roman emperor was seen as godlike.
6. Christianity, a religion that arose in the Middle East, was adopted by the Roman Emperor Constantine and became the religion of the Roman Empire. The religion survived Rome's collapse.
7. Under constant attach from outside its borders, the Roman Empire divided into two halves. The Western half, with its capital in Rome, was eventually overrun by barbarian tribes and fell in 476 A.D. The eastern half survived almost another 1000 years as the Byzantine Empire.
The Persian Empire
Cyrus the Great: Ruler who united the Persian Empire
Darius: son of Cyrus the Great, introduced uniform measure and built several new cities.
Zoroastrianism: a new religion based on Zoroaster, who taught there were two gods
light and goodness
dark and evil
learned to use coins, moving from barter to money economy
built hundreds of roads to unify empire
established a postal service
Mountains cut off centers of population from each other. This led to development of separate city-states.
that was military in nature. Life was organized around military needs. At an early age, males were taught to be strong soldiers serving the state.
Developed world's first
, but women, foreigners and slaves were not citizens and could not take part in Athenian government.
Democracy: government by the people, exercised either directly or through representatives
city-state: an autonomous territory, not governed by another government and consisting of a city and its surrounding territory
Is the US a direct of representative democracy??
Golden Age of Greek Culture
During this period, the Greeks enjoyed great prosperity and made significant achievements in art, literature and philosophy.
Athenians believed human reason was powerful enough to understand the world and solve problems. Noted Greek philosophers question nature and life.
Who is this??
Athens created statues and buildings to perfect proportion.
Parthenon: Temple to goddess Athena, high point of Greek architecture
Rome: built on fertile plain in the middle of Italy
has a system of government by elected representatives. Roman society had two main social classes:
republic: a political system where people elect officials to exercise power for them
(also protects the interests of the minority)
Patricians: the ruling class
Plebeians: The normal citizens of Rome
Roman code of laws that stated citizens were "equal under the law" and "innocent until proven guilty."
If you are called to go to court, you must go. If you don’t show up, you can be taken to court by force.
If you need a witness to testify and he will not show up, you can go once every three days and shout in front of his house.
Should a tree on a neighbor's farm be bend crooked by the wind and lean over your farm, you may take legal action for removal of that tree.
If it's your tree, it’s your fruit, even if it falls on another man’s land.
A person who had been found guilty of giving false witness shall be hurled down from the Tarpeian Rock.
No person shall hold meetings by night in the city.
A dead man shall not be buried or burned within the city.
Marriages should not take place between plebeians and patricians. (As time went on, this law was changed. When the tables were first written, this was the law.)
These were mentioned on your benchmarks and on other test reviews....take notes!!
After uniting Italy, Rome defeated Carthage, and spread to Western Europe. Augustus became the first emperor. Christianity gradually spread.
The "Classical Era" in the East
1. The Aryans introduced Hinduism and the caste system to India, creating hereditary social classes.
2. Although Buddhism began in India, it spread rapidly throughout South, Central Southeast and East Asia. Asoka, a Mauryan ruler, adopted Buddhism.
3. The Gupta Empire was marked by a "Golden Age of Hindu Culture," which saw growth in learning, the arts, literature, the sciences, and mathematics.
4. China was ruled by a series of dynasties (ruling families)
5. Confucianism became China's dominant belief system. Based on the teachings of Confucius, it stressed kindness and following traditional ways to achieve peace and harmony.
6. The Qin Empire, Shih Huagn-ti, united distant parts of China and built the Great Wall to protect China from foreign invaders.
7. The fall of the Han Dynasty in the East had some similarities to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.
Empires in India
Aryans came to India around 1500 BC
Created city-states in major river valleys.
Developed Sanskrit, a form of writing
Introduced Hinduism to India
New Social order developed, known as the caste system
Mauryan Empire (269-232 BCE)
Asoka allowed all religions in India.
Asoka built roads and hospitals.
Gupta Empire: They ushered in the "Golden Age of Hindu Culture".
Advanced concept of zero, and the decimal system.
Their system of numerals is used today.
Hindus believe in many gods and goddesses - all are forms of one Supreme Being.
Reincarnation: We're born in a new form after we die, based on deeds in this life.
This supports the caste system.
Began in India around 500 BC
Siddhartha Gautama: Known as Buddha
Rich prince who set off in search of truth
Beliefs: self-denial and meditation
one must give up selfish desires to find true peace and harmony
Belief in reincarnation
Dynasties of China
China's history is divided into dynasties...
Believed their ruler was in power due to
Mandate of Heaven
Mandate of Heaven: right to rule claimed to have been granted to Ancient Chinese rulers by the gods.
Shi Huang-ti: First emperor of China
Unified China under his rule
built/improved/expanded Great Wall of China
kept China unified over the next 400 years
selected officials based on examinations
established trade along Silk Road
How did this effect the whole world???
Confucius establish a philosophy followed in China for centuries.
This philosophy stressed kindness, peace, harmony, and following the natural order - each person's role in society is due to his or her position in the universe.
In every relationship there is a superior and inferior.
A good ruler should govern justly and for the benefit of his subjects.
Middle Ages in Europe
Europe after the fall of Rome....
In the East - the Roman Empire continued as the Byzantine Empire
In the West - Europe experienced centuries of turmoil as different groups invaded and political authority was frequently challenged by outbreaks of violence.
The Byzantine Empire
moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople in 330 AD
was located on land route between Europe and Asia. Lasted for almost 1,000 years.
Today it is called Istanbul, and is located in Turkey.
They developed their own form of Christianity known as Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
End of Empire
Over time, the Byzantine Empire gradually lost its territories. In 1453, it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
People in the Middle Ages
appealed to faith in God
Charlemange (Charles the Great)
was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Aachen in 800 AD, expanding the empire, and revived learning.
St. Thomas Aquinas
argued men could judge government laws against natural law and could overthrown unjust rulers (sound familiar?)
in 1215. It guaranteed Englishmen the right to a trial and required consent of the nobles before passing any new taxes.
What did this do to the power of the king?
Code of Justinian (533 AD)
collected all of the existing Roman laws and legal opinions and organized into a single code.
Feudalism arose in Europe out of the chaos after the fall of Rome. It provided security and protection in a period of great turmoil.
Society was divided between king, nobles, knights, and serfs. Lords gave land t vassals in exchange for service.
The king ruled with the advice of his leading nobles. The nobles served the king with their knights, armed warriors on horses.
Economic System (Manorialism)
Serfs worked on the land of their lord. Most people lived on self-sufficient manors.
This occurred in WESTERN Europe. Why would those in the Byzantine Empire be upset by this??
Age of Faith: Catholic Church
The Catholic Church was the most powerful organization in Western Europe. The Pope was the head of the church.
Christians believed the Church had the power to send people to Heaven or Hell.
Church wealth grew as many nobles who died left their land to the church in order to gain entry into heaven.
How would this effect the church?
Crusades - Christian Europeans challenged the Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The Crusades increased interest in trade with the East.
The Church was the main center of learning.
How did the Catholic Church
learning and advances??
How did the Catholic Church
learning and advancements?
How could you say the Crusades were a
How could you say the Crusades were a
Stories about Robin Hood
and the Knights Templar come from the Crusades.
Rise of Islam
In the 7th century, Islam arose on the Arabian Peninsula.
Founded Islam. He believed God had selected him as a messenger to preach faith in Allah, the one true God.
Quran - Holy book of Islam. Contains God's message as spoken to Mohammad.
Five Pillars of Islam
Spread of Islam
Within 100 years, the Islamic
controlled the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain.
: Islamic state, territory controlled by Islamic rulers (aka
Followed a new caliph not related to Mohammed.
believe only Mohammed's descendants could be caliphs.
The Golden Age of Muslim Culture
Arts and Crafts
geometric designs; textile; leather works; rugs
Borrowed the concept of the zero from India. Developed Arabic numerals. Advances in geometry and algebra.
Learned to diagnose many diseases such as measles and smallpox
beautiful palaces and mosques; calligraphy; geometrical designs
Kingdoms of Africa
Merchants crossed the Sahara to trade salt for gold and other riches.
Kingdom of Ghana
Prospered by taxing the gold-salt trade
Kingdom of Mali
Controlled the gold-salt trade
Mansa Musa visited Cairo and Mecca
Expanded Timbuktu, which became center of Islamic learning and culture.
Kingdom of Songhai
Also grew rich from trade across Sahara. Its people were Muslims; expanded trade with Europe and Asia.
wrote his accounts of travels across Africa and the Middle East
Ottoman Turks, ruled by the Sultan, emerge in the 1200s and captured Constantinople in 1453.
Their empire was located at the crossroads between Europe and Asia.
They controlled the Middle East and parts of Eastern Europe.
Ottomans also dominated the Mediterranean until they were defeated by Spain.
Muslim and Mughal Empire
Ottomans allowed Christians and Jews some limited self-government.
Why is this a
? (religious toleration)
Muslims began invading Northwest India in the later 7th century.
Muslim = Islamic
The Muslims established
in Northwest India.
country ruled by sultan: a country ruled by a sultan
rank of sultan: the rank or position of sultan
sultan's reign: the period of a sultan's reign
Babur founded the Mughal Empire:
Akbar the Great conquered Muslim and Hindu states, uniting India under his control
Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles. (Wikipedia)
It was built as a mausoleum for the Mughal emperor's (Shah Jahan) third wife.
A religion that combined beliefs from Islam and Hinduism
Oneness with God
Share and equality among people
Spiritual and Secular intertwined
Truthful, fidelity, self-control, purity
Golden Age of China
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Reunited China and brought peace and prosperity.
Reintroduced government examinations
Great advances were made in architecture, sculpture, and painting.
Conquered Korea and Manchuria.
Song Dynasty (920-1279)
Introduced compass and paper money.
Greatly increased farm production.
Population saw an increase in wealth.
Introduce the use of gunpowder in war.
Central Asia saw the rise of nomadic peoples who excelled at horsemanship and fighting skills.
During 1200, the Mongols of Central Asia established the world's largest empire.
Chinggis Khan united Mongols and attacked China; promoted trade in the empire.
established the Yuan Dynasty in China. Visited by Marco Polo.
The Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongols in China and established 300 years of peace; later Ming emperors were involved in trade with Europe.
Ming Dynasty Phoenix Crown
The End of Medieval Europe
The Crusades....These exposed Europeans to eastern ideas and goods and stimulated trade; increased trade led to growth of towns.
What was the purpose of the Crusades?
Were they successful?
Great Famine...A decade of extended rains led to serious food shortages in Europe.
What is a famine?
How could rain lead to a food SHORTAGE?
Killed one third of the world's population; shortage of labor led to the decline of serfdom.
Occurred when there were Popes in Avignon and Rome; led people question authority of the Church.
The Renaissance sparked a rebirth of classical culture in Italy from about 1350 to the 1500's.
Leonardo da Vinci
How was this different from the Medieval time period?
During this time, the Church was a MAJOR part of life and the civilization.
Secularism...Thinkers used observation to observe the world, rather than rely on church teachings.
Humanism...Renaissance thinkers celebrated
achievements and focused on individual worth.
Artistic - New realistic paintings and sculpture: Giotto, Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo.
How did art change from the Medieval to the Renaissance?
Political - Rise of powerful state: Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince
Economy - further increases in trade
The Protestant Reformation
objected to the Church's sale of indulgences. In his
(1517), Luther challenged the Pope's authority. Luther broke from the Church.
Effects of the Protestant Reformation
Ended religious unity in Europe
Others, like John Calvin, started Protestant churches of their own.
Henry VIII of England broke with the Catholic Church.
Led to a century of religious wars between Catholics and Protestants.
Speeded economic growth in North Europe.
Catholics and Protestants are BOTH Christian.
Catholic Counter Reformation
The Catholic Church fought back against the rise of Protestantism.
Council of Trent
: ended the sale of
, introduced Church reforms, began a Church ban of certain books.
: tried and executed person who were suspected of committing
: New Catholic order (poverty, knowledge)
: Catholic rulers cooperated with the Pope in fighting Protestantism. Europe became divided between Catholic countries and Protestant countries [mainly England (P) and France (C)]
Pre Colombian Civilizations
More than 3,000 years ago, the Maya developed a complex civilization in the rainforests of present day Guatemala; developed a form of writing; grew corn.
over two centuries, the Aztecs engaged in frequent wars to conquer other people of the region. In Mexico.
The Inca Empire developed along the Pacific coast and in the Andes mountains of South America; they grew potatoes; built roads and stone buildings.
Spanish conquerors (conquistadors) subdued the Aztecs (Cortes) and Incas (Pizarro). Established colonies in the Americas.
Europeans brought new animals and food to the Americas, including horses, cattle, chicken, pigs, wheat, sugar, and rice.
Spain sought gold and silver from the new world.
Europeans came to the Americas for the 3 G's....
New Spanish colonies were ruled by
There was a viceroy for present day Mexico/America and one for South America.
These men acted as governors and appointed leaders to take care of smaller districts.
Native Americans gradually converted to religion of the Europeans - Christianity.
Other countries - France, Holland, and England set up colonies in the New World...mainly North America.
New colonial societies emerged.
Effects of the Columbian Exchange
Christopher Columbus "encountered" the Americas after crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Effects - The encounter (1492) had many lasting effects
Europeans learned about new foods, such as corn, tomatoes, and chocolate.
Europeans established vast colonial empires in the Americas
Millions of Native Americans died from exposure to new European diseases, such as smallpox and measles.
Atlantic Slave Trade
Capture: Africans were captured by other African tribes and were often sold to European slave traders on West African Coast.
Millions were taken in ships chained together in inhumane conditions, for voyage across the Atlantic to the New World.
when enslaved Africans arrived, they were forced to work under brutal conditions
FREE ENTERPRISE (
Merchants developed new methods to finance large business ventures
used borrowing and
joint stock companies
to raise the large amounts of capital needed for these ventures
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry and the means of production are controlled by private owners with the goal of making profits in a market economy
Joint Stock Company is a business owned by stockholders.
Rulers increased their power by amassing gold and silver through conquests, taxes, trade and obtaining colonies.
economic policy that says that a nation benefits by accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods
Factors leading to growth of royal power:
Kings increased size of their army.
Kings raised more taxes among their subjects.
Royal authority based on "reason of state" - need for order, or
Subdue:to bring under control, especially under by exerting will
Divine Right: a monarch's power come from God and they only have to answer to God
Absolute Monarchy...King Louis XIV (14) of France
His will was law.
He permitted no criticism to his rule.
Built Versailles Palace to house nobles.
Developed a large and powerful army.
How would these things help a monarch gain power?
Ltd Monarchy in England
Traditional checks on English king's power
Magna Carta (1215) limited king's power
English Parliament (legislature)
Henry VIII and Elizabeth I ruled with Parliament
James I favored divine right. His son, Charles, tried to rule without Parliament.
English Civil War: Parliament defeated and executed Charles I (1649).
So how did tha work for him?
: James II was overthrown by William of Orange and his daughter, Mary.
English Bill of Rights
: stated supremacy of parliament and the right of subjects.
This principle arose again during the American Revolution and is seen in the Declaration of Independence.
Changed ways of thinking.
new ways of scientific investigation
rejected traditional teachings of church
Robert Boyle: Investigated gases
Issac Newton: laws of gravity
Applied human reason to society
questioned role of Catholic Church
rejected traditional teachings of the Church
opposed hereditary privileges
sought to reform society
Why would the Scientific Revolution reject the Church?
Leading Enlightenment Thinkers
Baron de Montesquieu
Add a description to these:
Colonists objected to the British government's imposing new taxes without their consent:
"no taxation without representation"
Colonists were influenced by religion, legacy of the
Declaration of Independence was written mainly by Thomas Jefferson and applied Enlightenment ideas.
established a stable government with a separation of powers, as suggest by Baron de Montesquieu
Impact of the American Revolution
The success of the American Revolution encouraged the outbreak of the French Revolution. It also led to the rise of independence movements through Latin America.
Inequality among the Estates (social classes)
severe financial crisis
spread of Enlightenment ideas questioned privileges
What does this political cartoon symbolize?
Louis XVI summoned the Estates General to vote on new taxes in 1789 to relieve the financial crisis.
The Third Estate (peasants) declared itself a National Assembly and issued the Declaration of Rights of Man.
Bastille: Citizens stormed the Bastille to get weapons.
Convention executed Louis XVI in 1793
France was at war with most of Europe.
Why would other countries have a problem with the French executing their king? (ex. The KING of England wasn't too happy.)
launched a revolutionary
Reign of Terror
against all dissenters. Introduced mass conscription (draft into military).
Basic Economic Questions
What will be produced?
How will it be produced?
Who gets what is produced?
The answers to these questions often dictate what form of economy to adopt.
Producers make what they want.
Consumers buy what they need.
Supply and demand determine price.
Explained the free enterprise system stated the "Invisible Hand' theory which guides individual actions so that they actually work for the common good.
Felt capitalists oppressed workers. One day workers would overthrow capitalists and establish a classless society. Private property is eliminated....SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM
Pre-Conditions of the Industrial Revolution
Great Britain was ready for changes because of favorable geography conditions.
Britain had good transportation and communication systems,
global trade and prosperous agriculture.
Great Britain had st commercial outlook and a global empire.
Scientific advances in the 17th and 18th centuries made inventors open to new ways to doing things. They had the technical skills to build the new machines
: invented in 1764
Goods were no longer made at home, but mass produced.
James Watts improved the steam engine. Allowed for improvements across the board.
Steamboats and Railroads
What is the difference in a revolution and rebellion?
Impact of Industrial Revolution
Economic Impact: mass production of goods made them more available and cheaper.
Social Impact: people moved from the countryside to towns and cities.
Political impact: 1) Reform movements demanded social change, such as 10 hour work day and a ban on child labor. 2) middle class supported reforms in England, like the Reforms Bill of 1832 3) led to unification of Italy and Germany.
: the political and economic control of one area or country by another.
India: Ruled by British (Raj); used trained Indian soldiers known as "Sepoys" to easily put down Sepoy Rebellion (British had better weapons and trained soldiers).
Southeast Asia: French, Dutch, Spanish established colonies there.
Britain takes Egypt to keep control fo the Suez Canal.
Berlin Conference: (1884-1885)
King Leopold II: King of Belgium, ruled COngo located in central Afrrica; treated natives harshly, killing millions to increase production in his rubber plantations.
Scramble for Africa
Opium War (1839-1842)
and establishment of spheres of influence by European powers. British began selling opium in China to buy tea. Chinese government objected and British declared war defeated the Chinese and setting up "treaty ports" giving the British trading privileges which hurt the Chinese economy.
Boxer Rebellion (1899)
rebelled against the spread of foreign influence in China. Hundreds of foreigners were killed;
played a key role in putting the rebellion down and establishing an
"Open Door Policy"
multiple countries have power to trade with China and no single one has total control
dominated the economy of this area.
and a few islands in the Caribbean. People rebelled against Spain because of
harsh working conditions
in the sugarcane fields. Spain used brutal force; USS Maine is blown up in Havana killing 250 American soldiers (1898); led to the
US acquires Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
Causes for Imperialism
New technologies made it possible
military technology - rifles
medicines - quinine used against malaria
transportation - steamboats and railroads
communication technology - telegraph and telephone made communication easier.
Motives for Imperialism
Political: European countries competed for power and colonial empires
Economic: European nations wanted natural resources and markets for goods
Social: European nations wanted to spread their culture and civilize Africa and Asia.
War between the
(Britain, France, Russia, and the US) and
(Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Turkey).
New Weapons and tactics: submarines, machine guns, planes, "trench warfare," poison gas, early tanks
Results: Versailles Treaty...Germany forced to pay reparations; Germany lost its colonies; Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey were broken up; a League of Nations was proposed.
Russian Revolution (1917)
Before WWI, most Russians lived in poverty while the Tsar and nobles were immensely rich.
Russia entered WWI. They lost many battles and food supplies to cities cut off by war. Food riots broke out.
Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and executed. A provisional government was established.
Bolsheviks come to power. Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, promised "Peace, Bread and Land" to Russian peasants. They seized power; withdrew from the war; founded the first Communist government.
Civil War (1919-1921)
War between Reds (Communists) and Whites (anti-Communists)
ended in Communist victory
A political system developed in Italy, Germany, Spain and other nations following WWII.
Main characteristics of Fascism:
: belief a country should united its national leaders.
Glorified violence and racism.
Devotion to Party Leader
: an all powerful leader as seen as embodying the true ideals of a nation.
Saw democratic governments as feeble and weak.
: a dictator or political party controls all aspects of life.
Nazism (National Socialism)
Hitler became the Nazi Party leader. attacked the Weimer Republic as weak and attacked the Versailles Treaty as too harsh on Germany. (Gained people's support and gave voice/scapegoat to their problems).
He wrote Mein Kampf (1925), where he stated that Germans were a superior race and Jews were the major cause of Germany' problems.
Nazi Party seized power in 1933. It eliminated all political rivals, restricted Jews in business and education, and began a massive rebuilding of military. They pushed public projects to stimulate economy and used terror with the Gestapo (secret police). Concentration camps were built to relocate Jews.
Key Events for WWII
Worldwide Conflict Between:
Axis Powers (Italy, Germany, Japan)
Allied Powers (Britain, US, Russia)
League of Nations: was too weak to maintain world peace.
They were unable to make any major decisions that would be beneficial.
Hitler marched into Austria and seized it.
Britain and France
Hitler, giving him a large part of Czechoslovakia (to avoid war).
Hitler-Stalin Pact: Non-aggression pact. This allowed Hitler to invade Poland in 1939, which began WWII.
Germans conquered Western Europe using lightning attacks, called blitzkrieg.
to pacify someone by agreeing to their demands
Britain held back the Germans in the Battle of Britain.
Germany invades Russia in 1941. (Didn't work out so well for the Germans - many froze to death in the Russian winter. Didn't work out so well for the Russians - over two million were killed.)
Japan attacked China in 1937.
Launched a surprise air attach on Pear Harbor in 1937.
Six millions Jews were killed in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz.
landings in France in 1944 opened a second front against Germany. (DDay...Operation Overlord)
in 1945. Hitler committed suicide.
. US dropped atom bombs on Japanese cities:
Nazi leaders were put on trial for war crimes and genocide.
Decolonization of Asia and Africa
Gandhi used non-violent resistance.
Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan created.
Ghana was the first to achieve independence in 1957; other countries soon followed.
in South Africa;
was elected president in 1994.
A system of segregation and discrimination based on race
Indonesians and Vietnamese fight; win independence from Holland and France.
Cold War (1946-1991)
Global competition between the US and Soviet Union; both armed with atomic weapons
Despite Yalta Conference pledge, Soviets refused to hold free elections after WWII allowed Communist puppet governments to take power.
" Falls: Eastern Europe is cut off from contact with the West.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
based on the North Atlantic Treaty signed 4.4.1949
Alliance formed by Western Europe and US to protect against Societs
. Alliance of Eastern Europe and Soviet Union as a countermeasure to NATO.
took steps to block the spread of Soviet Communism in Europe.
President Truman announced US would give military aid to all free people resisting Communism.
Aid given to Western European nations to rebuild their economies to help stop Communist revolutions.
Korean War (1950-1953)
assisted South Korea against invasion by North Korea (Communist).
entered the war on the side of North Korea.
under Mao Zedong
under Chiang Kai-Shek from China
. Communists then
all aspects of
; killed businessmen and wealthy farmers.
Great Leap Forward
Five year plan that failed to industrialize China.
Peasant lands were collectivized.
30-50 million dead
Mao's attempt to reinvigorate Communism in China was a disaster.
(Chinese students) forced educated people to work on farms in countryside and destroyed ancient works of art.
IN 1954, FRENCH WITHDREW. VITNAM WAS SPLIT.
HO CHI MINH
CREATED COMMUNIST STATE IN THE NORTH. SOUTH VIETNAM FAVORED THE WEST (CAPITALISM).
ELECTIONS: REUNIFICATION ELECTIONS WERE NEVER HELD AS PROMISED.
FIGHTERS IN SOUTH, CALLED
, HAD NORTHERN HELP.
BY 1964, THERE WERE
500,000 US TROOPS
HELPING SOUTH VIETNAM.
US OFFICIALS FEARED
SPREAD OF COMMUNISM
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA.
SOLDIERS WHO DO NOT FOLLOW THE TYPICAL WAR TACTICS: RAIDS, AMBUSH, SABOTAGE...
RESULT: DESPITE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, US COULD NOT TURN TIDE. US WITHDREW IN 1973. VIETNAM UNIFIED UNDER COMMUNISM IN 1975.
CLICK PICS TO ZOOM
The End of Soviet Communism (1991)
Central planning could not compete with economic freedom of the West.
Pope John Paul
and Lech Walesa fought for greater freedom in Poland.
: Introduced reforms in the Soviet Union and lifted the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe, but his reforms failed.
. On 11.9.1989, the wall was finally torn down.
. In 1990, Germany was reunited once again.
Palestine has been home to Jews and Muslims.
(began mid-20th century)
Israeli independence (1948)
The United Nations created a Jewish state out of Palestine (1948 following WWII)
Arabs rejected this and attacked Israel.
Thousands of Palestinians fled their homes to neighboring Arab states.
Arab Israeli War (1956, 1967, 1973)
After the 1967 war, Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Camp David Accords (1978)
Peace treaty with Egypt's Anwar al-Sadat.
Israel agreed to give back Sinai to Egypt.
In 1993, Israel agreed to a Palestinian Authority. (attempt for peace)
Radical Islamic Fundamentalism
Iranian Revolution, 1979
Overthrew the Shah and established an Islamic state.
Resents Western Culture
September 11, 2001
Terrorists attack the United States
Coalition forces went to war in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Genocide in Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Burundi, and Darfur
Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo: the disappearance of people from Argentine
Mother Teresa (1910-1997)
Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013)
Golda Meir (1898-1978)
New global culture and economy due to Internet and technology.
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
The goal of OPEC is to unify and coordinate petroleum prices among its member countries in order to secure stable prices for petroleum in consumer countries.
1973 Oil Crisis
In response to the US supporting Israeli military efforts to block Muslims and Egyptians from the Sinai Peninsula, some OPEC nations (Egypt, Syria, Tunisia) created an oil embargo (limiting trade) against the US. Other countries in Europe pulled away from the US to escape the same fate, while the US attempted negotiations with both sides for peace in the region and raising of the embargo. This led to higher oil and gas prices and dominoed into possibly the first prominent economic setback since the Great Depression.
Minister of Labor
First Female British
PM in the
Founded the Missionaries of Charity
that give aid to the poor, sick, and
needy all over the world.
Steps have been taken to make her a saint.
Loess makes the river look yellow.
What is a theocracy?
What is a monarchy?
Click on the link to view the video...
monotheistic or polytheistic???
Make sure you watch this one!!
Korea became a divided nation after Japanese occupation in WWII. Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. They were divided by the 38th parallel.
North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950
After a push by both sides, an
was signed in 1953, but troops remained stationed on either side of the
No peace treaty was ever signed.
The US developed the
that Vietnam would cause other SE Asian nations to fall to communism and they invested supplies, training and eventually thousands of troops in fighting communism there.
worst terrorist attack in US history
Occurred on September 11, 2001
A series of four coordinated strikes by hijacked airplaines on the Twin Towers of NYC, the Pentagon in DC, and the White House (plane headed to the White House was forced down by passengers)
perpetrated by al Qaeda and masterminded by Osama bin laden, who blamed the attack on the US' support of Israel and troops in Saudi Arabia.
Bin Laden was captured and killed in May 2011.
Comparable to Vietnam for the Soviets.
The Soviets became involved in a war to the south with Afghan warriors called mujahedin, who felt that Soviet policies threatened Islam.
The US smuggled weapons in to the mujahedin, and eventually the war proved costly to the Soviets, who withdrew years later.
Eventually placed al Qaeda in power in many areas.
My husband was on this ship when the picture was taken!!
Soviet-Afghan War (Dec. 1979-Feb 1989)
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
After WWII ended, Soviets and the Allies co-occupied Berlin as Germany was divided into an eastern half (Russian) and western half (Allies). Berlin itself was also divided
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 standoff between the US and the Soviet Union over missiles located in Cuba. After the Soviets sent the missiles to Cuba, President John F Kennedy put up a blockade to prevent shipments. After a tense few days, the Soviet missiles were removed.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
November 4, 1979-January 20, 1981
In support of an Iranian Revolution, where the country revolted against western influence under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, a groupof students took over the American Embassy in the Iranian capital of Tehran.
52 Americans were held hostage for 444 days. The students who overtook the compound were supported by Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious leader who led the revolution and eventually took power.
The standoff ended with negotiations and the hostages were retuend home.
Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)
Between Iraq and the UN, led by the US
A coalition force led by the United States liberated the country and crushed the Iraqi forces.
Hussein, however, stayed in power until he was overthrown in the 2003 Iraq War.
Violent acts meant to support a political goal
Oklahoma City - April 19, 1995
bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City
Killed 168 people
Conceived by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols
McVeigh supported local militais and was angered at the federal government's use of power in sieges on Ruby Ridge (1992) and Waco, Texas (1993).
Executed a series of bombings in the US from 1996-1998
Bombed the Olympics in Atlanta (Centennial Park) as well as several abortion clinics.
Maintained as a fugitive until he was caught in 2005, serving consecutive life sentences.
Acted in the interests of anti-abortionists.
Some terrorists attacks since 9.11.01
10.12.02: Nightclub in Indonesia bomb killed 202 people
10.23.2002: Chechens raided Moscow theater. All perpetrators and 130 hostages killed
11.2003: suicide truck bombs attacked two synagogues, British consulate and London based bank in Istanbul. Killing 50
3.11.2004: bombs on trains in Madrid killed 191. Al Qaida blamed.
7.7.2005: 52 killed when four al-Qaida suicide bombers detonated on London subway
9.20.2008: dump truck filled with explosive exploded outside hotel in Pakistan, killed 50 (Taliban and al-Qaida suspected)
11.23.2008: gunmen associated with terror group attack Mumbai, India killing 164
7.22.2011: Anti-Muslim extremists plant bomb in Oslo, and attack youth camp killing 77, mostly teenagers
3.11.2012: gunman linked to al-Qaida killed three jewish children, a rabbi and three paratroopers in Toulouse France
9.21.2013: Gunmen attack shoppers in Kenya killing 67 adn wounding 175 more (al-Shabaab claim responsibility)
1.3-7.2015: Boko Haraam attack Nigeria. death toll between 150-2,000
1.7.2015: al-Qaida gunmen killed 11 people at Charlie Hebdo magazine in Parsi. 17 die and three gunmen shot at kosher market
4.2015: Up to 147 people - mostley students - killed at University in Kenya (al-Shabaab)
10.10.2015: Suicide bombers detonate in Ankara killing 100 (Turkey)
11.13.2015: paris attacks leave 130 dead and others wounded at various attacks throughout the city
3.22.2016: nail bombs at Brussels Airport and a metro station killed 32 and three perpetrators. 300 injured
The innovations of industrialization caused a new problem - balancing industrial expansion with effects on global environment.
Pollution from factories and power plants
Deforestation - cutting down of trees without replacing them. Large issue in Africa, Latin America and Asia.
Global warming - a phenomenon of a rise in Earth's surface temperature over time. This issue is debated by scientists even today.
Post (Cold) War Innovations
Computer: device for making calculations and storing, processing and manipulating data.
First computers built in the 1940s, and were enormous.
With the invention of the silicon chip, personal computers (PCs) became widely available in the 1970's
The "Information Age" was coined after the invention of the Internet in the 1970s, which changed nearly every aspect about everything in our society.
The Green Revolution
Revolution of innovation caused by the introduction of commercially improved seeds, pesticides and equipment in the 1950s.
Led to increased production of food and cheaper food, but it is also blamed for pushing local farmers out of business because prices for crops dropped too low for small farmers to make a living.