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Banuelos Human Body System Brochure

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Jesus Banuelos

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Banuelos Human Body System Brochure

Human Body Island
Jesus Banuelos
Bio 1st Skeletal System The Skeletal System is the system that gives us support and protects internal organs. Without it, we couldn't move, have shape, and utilize muscle. Bone There are 4 types of bone at our resort.
Any of these bones will provide a memorable experience for your whole family Structure
Bones are first made up of Cartilage. As minerals such as calcium are deposited, bone is hardened. Compact bones add new bone cells in layers around a hollow channel in bones called the Haversian Canal. This channel goes lines the interior of the bone and provides the way for blood vessels. Eventually the bone cells become osteocytes and strengthen bone. Imports and Exports Imports: Blood travels to bones.
Exports: Red Bone marrow produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma) and platelets. Bone is made of Several layers of Tissue Growth Trendy Spots The Haversian Canal: This is where all the bone
growth takes place. Activites There are plenty of joint to keep everyone busy. Ball-and-socket joints move in all directions. Pivot joints rotate similar to when we turn our head. Hinge joints bend and straighten similar to our elbows and knuckles. Gliding joints move in a sliding motion and our wrists and ankles show this. Saddle joints rotate, bend, and straighten like the base of our thumbs. Disorders Osteoporosis is a disorder in the skeletal system. Bone cells in our body our constantly being replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when bone tissue replacement is slowed and bone tissue is lost. Women genetically have smaller bones so they are affected more. This condition can be avoided by exercising throughout life and having a mineral rich diet that includes dairy, green leaf vegetables, whole grain, and legumes. Dangers: Those affected by Osteoporosis may
have holes that distracted tourists may fall into. The purple represents the Appendicular
Skeleton while the tan color represents the
Axial Skeleton Muscular System The Muscular System moves limbs, moves substances through the body, and provides structure and support. Muscle Cardiac: Any muscle associated with the heart.
Skeletal: For Movement and are connected to bone by tendons.
Smooth: All the other types of muscles. May involve facial expressions, breathing, or digesting Muscles provide movement mainly. They are connected to other muscles by ligaments. Tendons connect muscles to bones. Bones provide something for the muscles to move. Trendy Spots and Activities Protein filaments: Here Actin and Myosin pull and relax to move muscles. Actin and Myosin Moving is a popular activity here. Imports and Exports Imports: Blood, oxygen, and protein.
Exports: Movement and Carbon Dioxide Injuries Muscles can tear if they are stretched too far. This can be prevented by warming up properly. Muscles can be strengthened by resistance exercises. Dangers Muscles can tear which may cause extreme pain. Integumentary System Circulatory System Respiratory System Digestive System Excretory System Immune System Nervous
System Endocrine System The Integumentary System protects against injury,
infection, fluid loss, and it helps regulate body temperature Homeostasis Whenever we are exercising, our body produces sweat to cool us down. The Integumentary System helps maintain homeostasis in many ways.
-Keratin makes skin waterproof
-Damaged cells are replaced not repaired
-Melanin protects from UV radiation
-Hair insulates the body Trendy Spots Activities The Dermis is the largest layer of skin and has the most
blood vessels, nerve cells, muscles, hairs, and glands. Imports and Exports Dangers Imports: blood and oxygen
Exports: Water, salt, acids, and nails The epidermis is exposed to everything we come in contact with and may be full of bacteria. Disorders There are two common disorders that skin encounters. Acne Acne is most common in teenagers. When oil glands release too much sebum, it can block pores with oil, dirt, and bacteria. Makeup and other cosmetic products can also block pores. When the pores are blocked, the surrounding tissue becomes infected and inflamed. The pores create pus which leads to pimples. Acne can be avoided by proper skin care, although not all acne can be treated. Skin Cancer Skin Cancer is caused by overexposure to UV radiation. Carcinomas are the most common types of skin cancer. These originate in skin cells that do not produce pigments. Malignant Melanoma is the other type of skin cancer that accounts for the majority of skin cancer deaths. These are caused by mutations in pigment producing skin cells. Skin cancer can be prevented by limiting UV radiation and wearing sunscreen. The Circulatory System transports
nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gases. Path of blood. Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary
Artery, Lungs, Capillaries, Pulmonary Veins,
Left Atrium, Left Ventricle, Aorta, Artery,
Capillaries, Veins, Inferior/Superior Vena Cava, Right Atrium. Trendy Spots Aorta- This is the muscle that pumps all of
our blood to our whole body. Activities The heart beats more times than we can count
throughout our lives. Imports Oxygen-poor blood, carbon dioxide, and plasma. Exports Oxygen-rich blood, oxygen, plasma How it relates to other systems Blood gets the oxygen in and CO2 out through the respiratory system. Blood is circulated by the muscle system, the skeletal system produces red blood cells, and all the systems need oxygen. Injuries A heart attack occurs when an area of the heart
muscle stops working and dies. A stroke is when an area of the brain dies. These are caused by smocking, lack of physical activity,
diets that are high in saturated fats, and unmanaged
stress Dangers If the heart stops pumping, we could very
well die from loss of oxygen The Respiratory System moves air into and out of the lungs and controls gas exchange between blood and lungs Function of Ribs and Diaphragm The diaphragm contracts and relaxes in order to suck in air or force it our. The ribs protect the lungs and other vital organs by expanding when the lungs expand and contracting when the lungs recede. Alveoli and Capillaries Here, either oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream or carbondioxide diffuses into the lungs Trendy Spots Alveoli: This is where gas exchange occurs Activities Breathing: This is how gas is put into our body and waste is removed Imports and Exports Imports: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exports Oxygen and Carbon dioxide Smoking Smoking can cause lung cancer. Lung Cancer is one of the
leading causes of deahs in the world. It is usually not curable. Only 15% live more than 5 years after being diagnosed. Dangers You may be absorbed into the blood stream where white blood cells will attack you Injuries and Disorders Asthma- A condition where the bronchial walls become narrow to the point where it causes troubled breathing that may be fatal. Can be prevented by expanding bronchial walls Emphysema- A chronic pulmonary disease that is caused by a chemical inbalance that destroys elastic fibers in the lungs that allow the lungs to expand and contract. Smoking is the cause of this.

Not smoking can prevent the worst of all respiratory diseases. Extracts and absorbs nutrients
from food, removes waste, and
maintains water and chemical
balance Things we Eat Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Sugar When digested,
turned into glucose, the energy most cells use Digested in the
mouth Building Blocks Amino Acids are
made when
digested Digested in the
stomach Fats Used to store energy
Digested in the
small intestine Trendy Spots
-Stomach-chemical and mechanical digestion
-Small Intestine- removes nutrients from food
-Liver- produces bile that adds aid to the emulsification (keeping together) of fats.
-Chewing- begins to break down food both mechanically and chemically (enzymes)
-Swallowing- Takes food to the stomach
-Absorption of nutrients- the small intestine absorbs the nutrients in the food that passes through it.
-Imports- Food (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, and vitamins), liquids, bile,
-Exports- glucose, amino acids, fats, minerals, vitamins, water, feces

Dangers- you may be accidentally digested

Injuries/ disorders-
too much saturated fats in a diet can cause high blood-cholesterol levels, which lead to cardiovascular diseases.
Not eating properly can lead to an unhealthy diet
Too many fats can cause obesity which increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, osteoarthritis, and other disorders,
Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly will prevent this.
Function Remove Waste from the body; regulate concentration of body fluids. Skin Lungs Liver Kidneys Skin's purpose is to excrete water, salt, nitrogen, and other substances through the form of sweat. The lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water through the form of exhaled air. The Purpose of the Following: The liver stores toxic substances that it cannot change. The kidneys excrete nitrogen wastes, salts, water, and other substances in urine.
Its purpose is to regulate blood by controlling the levels of salt. The Kidney is
bean shaped.
It has blood vessels
going through it.
It also has Ureters to
get rid of the
toxins that it collects.
There are two of
them parallel to
each other on
both sides of our body Trendy Spots
-Skin Activities
-Peeing Imports
-Oxygen Export
-Carbon Dioxide Dangers
Some areas may be unsanitary and
unsafe. Injuries/Disorders
-Kidney Stones- These form from crystalized minerals and salt. They block the path of urine and are extremely painful. Ultra Sound Waves can be used to crush them until they are small enough to pass through the urine.
To prevent Kidney Stones, a person should drink lots of water, low sodium drinks, and little soda or sugary drinks. The Immune system defends against
pathogens and diseases. How Pathogens Enter the Body -We can breath them in
-We can eat them
-Through wounds or open sores Barriers for protection -Skin
-Mucus Membranes
-Inflammatory Defenses
-Temperature Response
These are the first line of defense that are nonspecific The Next line of defense includes the following:
-White Blood Cells
-Natural Killer Cells
-Cytotoxic T cells
-B cells
-Helper T cells
-Antigens Trendy Spots
-Blood Stream
-Destroying of
cells Dangers: You may be mistaken for a pathogen and be destroyed Injuries/Disorders Autoimmune Diseases: This is where the body mistakens itself for a pathogen and attacks itself. There is no way to prevent it.
HIV: The Human Immunodeficiency virus. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is the disease caused by HIV. It disables Helper T Cells and slowly the immune system weakens. HIV is spread through contact with body fluids. Saliva isn't a strong enough body fluid to carry HIV though. There is no way to prevent HIV, but its infection and spread can be controlled. The Nervous system regulaes behavior, maintains hemoestasis, regulates other organ systems, and controls sensory and motor functions Trendy Spots
-Spinal Chord Activities
Everything you do and
literally everything you think of Imports
-Sensory Information
-Physical Feelings Dangers
You might go
crazy with power Injuries/Disorders
-Addiction to drugs that alters a neuron to create a need for the drug to be present to operate correctly. Can be prevented by not taking drugs.
-Marijuana usage- Impairs judgment, short-term memory loss, disorientation, and general loss of movement. Can be prevented by not taking Marijuana
Alcohol- decreases activity of the central nervous system, reaction time increase, and judgement, coordination, and speech become impaired. Taking little or no alcohol will prevent this.
Concussion- A hit to the head will cause the brain
to swell up into space that is not available. Memory loss is a possible side effect. Wearing proper head protection is a way to prevent this. Regulates body temperature, metabolism,
development, and reproduction; maintains homeostasis; regulates other organ systems Hormones Hormones are substances that are secreted in you body to regulate growth, development, behavior,and reproduction, coordinate the production, use, and storage of energy, maintain homeostasis, and respond to stimuli outside the body. Trendy Spots
-Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
-Adrenal Glands
-Creating hormones
-regulating blood glucose levels
Exports- Body function commands
Dangers- Hormones may make you their target cells and who knows what they'll make you do. Injuries/Disorders Diabetes-A condition where
glucose from the blood us unable to be obtained by cells. This causes the glucose to be filtered by the kidneys and excess peeing and persistent thirst may arise. The glucose deprived cells then need to use the body's supply of fats and proteins for energy. Low blood pH, comas, and, in extreme cases, death can arise due to this.
Regular exercise and a non-obese-making diet can help reduce the risk of Type II diabetes. Type I diabetes is a heredity autoimmune disease and can't be prevented. How the systems all coexist.
- The Muscular System requires the bones from the skeletal system to move, blood from the circulatory system, skin from the integumentary system, energy from the digestive system, and commands from the nervous system.
-The Circulatory System provides all the other systems with blood. This blood carries oxygen from the respiratory system there for the organs to use, and carbon dioxide back for the respiratory system to take out of the body. The kidneys filter the blood. White blood cells use blood as highways.
-The Digestive System uses muscles to churn the food in the stomach and to move it down the esophagus.
-The Excretory System removes all the waste that other systems produce
-The Immune system protects all the other systems from pathogens.
-The Nervous system controls everything we and our body systems do.
-The Endocrine system provides instructions on how to do certain operations.

If any one of the systems was missing, our body would not be able to operate the way that we do. Every system has an important role that we could literally not live without. Work Cited Johnson, George B., and Peter H. Raven. "Unit 9." Holt Biology. Orlando: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2006. N. pag. Print.
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