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Hazardous Waste

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Nouraiz Nazar

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Hazardous Waste

Khadija Asif
Nouraiz Nazar
Sarah Wazir
Sarah Naseem Hazardous Waste Handling Disposal Incineration Definition Solid waste process for hazardous waste Collection and Storage Landfills (can effect hydrological system or pollute ground water)
Recycling (Lead circuit or Lithium Ion batteries and other electronic circuits)
Pyrolysis (to kill pesticides and other pollutant)
Incineration Burning of waste at high temperature
Remove water and reduces mass of the sludge
And convert it into non-burnable ash Waste having possible adverse threats and considerable impacts on humans and Environment, due to their physio-chemical and/or biological properties. Main Generators What if hazardous waste not handled properly? Fatal
Highly flammable
(alcohols, petrol etc.)
Can give violent chemical reactions
(oxides, acids, nitrogenous compounds etc.)
(chemicals with extreme acidic and basic properties)
Flammable gasses
(propane, methane butane, acetylene, etc.) Hazardous waste could be: Hazardous waste could be: (contd.) Carcinogenic
(benzene, aniline, aromatic compounds, etc.)
(Thiourea, alkylates, tetraethyl lead, etc.)
DDT, PCBs, pesticides, etc.)
(gels, creams, lotions, etc.) Industrial waste Household waste Hospital waste Pesticides
Arsenic cyanides
Heavy metals
Aromatic compounds Thermometers
Automobile Lubricants
Cleaning agents
Expired medicines
Shoe polish
Mercury containing compounds Medicines
Infected equipments
Spirit It is a responsibility of producer
Must be segregated at production site
Different bags, colors, symbols can be used
Mention date, month & year
Mention liquid, solid or gaseous
Black bags for household
Yellow for infected waste
And brown is for chemicals Handling of bags Fill them 2/3rd
Do wear gloves
Try not to make contact with your body parts Should be collected on daily basis
Should be easy to clean
Should be accessed by authorized person
Should not effect plants and animals
Should not be stored near public place
Should have shelter from sun
Should have easy access to on and off site disposal Transportation Must be easy to load and unload
Must not have sharp corners/edges
Must be easy to clean
Must be clearly marked
Must be tightly closed, avoiding spilling
Must be equipped with a safe loading system Highly contentious method
Incomplete burning can produce
Carbon monoxide
Gaseous dioxins
NOx & SOx
other harmful substance Need of Incinerators Reduces the amount of waste
Relatively more better than other processes
It kills many toxic elements
It can treat hospital waste in proper way
Energy from waste (can produce heat and electricity) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
(RCRA) 1976 International Identification of Hazardous waste Purpose of act:
Keep record
Keep track from generation till disposal
Avoid illegal disposal
Listed hazardous waste
Characteristics hazardous waste Two Main agencies
European Union
Us Environmental Protection Agency

Set different standards
Apply test to discover characteristics How Incinerator Work? Waste are to hopper
Feed waste to incinerator
Adjust temperature according to type
Heat can be use to boil water
Steam can be used to run generator
Burned waste falls on collection area
Electromagnetic is used to pick particles and send to scrubber reactor
Scrubber treat flue gasses like SO2
Gasses are released from chimney
Heat can be used to produce electricity Type of wastes for waste
for incineration Municipal waste (that is not recyclable & it is harmfull for landfills)
Industrial waste (many chemicals, liquids and solid materials)
Hospital waste (sharps, infected equipments, etc.)
Radioactive material (radionulides, medicinal treatment, etc.) Design of incinerator Achieve desired temperature
Necessary to kill pathogens
Minimize emission of gasses
Minimize fuel consumption
Can burn tons of waste at a time Site for an Incinerator Should be in open area, hilltops without trees
Should not be near forest, valley, populated area, agricultural land Type of incinerator Rotary kiln Incinerator Consist of inclined Rotating chamber
Refraction of heat equally and burning of waste
Evacuate ash
Process at high temperature
Plant emits gasses into atmosphere
Can treat huge amount of waste Fluidized - bed Incinerator Medium scale incinerator, processes 50-150 tons, everyday
Widely used in Japan
Stoker grate is replaced by bed of limestone
Fed by air distribution
Heat produced can be transfer for recovery Mass - burn Incinerator Easy to treat Municipal hazardous waste
Quick fix and easy way for disposal
It highly pollute the environment Modular Incinerator Small amount, can treat 5-120 tons a day
Maximum 14-400 tons a day
Produce steam as by product
Small size is used in industrial and commercial operations Effects of Incineration It is a effective way to treat the infected waste of Hospitals
Incinerator ash and unburn chemicals and toxic gas emission is harm full for the environment.
It reduces the amount of waste
but production house for Dioxins
The harmful particles in air effect the human health (effect on immune system, skin diseases, different infections) Conditions of Incinerators in Lahore It is the only way to treat hospital waste
But still a lot of hazardous waste is disposed of without treatment
Diseases if reuse
Childrens and Shalimar Hospital Incinerators
Insufficient to meet the need of 9 million people
Hospital Waste Management Rules (2005) have not applied Trend of treating Hazardous waste in Pakistan More then 90% waste remains untreated
Cathode rays tube in Computer and TV’s (leads to fatal kidney and brain diseases)
Mercury in Electronic items remains untreated after disposal
EPA 1997 has no proper law for the safe handling of Hazardous waste Solution to Manage Hazardous Waste Should avoid the toxic waste
Should use reusable material
Do Recycling and Composting
Enhance the quality of incinerator to avoid pollution
Don’t mix hazardous waste with other trash
Do on-site segregation Our responsibility Waste could be harmful if not treated properly
Realize your responsibility as individual
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