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Music Assignment - Instruments of the Orchestra
Raymond Wuon 10 June 2013
Transcript of Music Assignment - Instruments of the Orchestra
Ludwig van Beethoven's Trio for 2 oboes and English horn
Antonín Dvořák's Symphony No. 9 The Woodwind Instruments The Piccolo History Piccolo Repetoire Overview Piccolos have been used in many cultures for a long time. They were invented by flautist Traditionally, piccolos had no keys. A common myth is that Beethoven’s Egmont overture was the first orchestral work to include piccolos, however, composers such as Süssmayr and his contemporizes had already used piccolos. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound Like a flute, the piccolo is played by blowing across the top of an air hole. Some of the air is caught against the lip of the hole and begins to vibrate as it enters the instrument. The pitch can be changed by covering holes in the side of the instrument or pressing levers. Egmont Overture
Menuet des follets from La Damnation de Faust by Hector Berlioz Saxophone History Interesting Fact Overview The saxophone was developed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian instrument maker but also a player of the flute and the clarinet. While he was working at his father’s instrument shop in Brussels, Sax decided on developing an instrument with the projection of a brass instrument and the agility of a woodwind. He wanted it to overblow at the octave. An instrument that overblew at octave would have identical fingering for both registers. He created an instrument that was like a platypus, a mixture of different properties of other instruments. He received a 15 year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846. When the patent expired in 1866, many numerous saxophonists made their own improvements to the saxophone. The first substantial change was by a Frenchman creating an extended bell and adding an extra key to increase the range. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound It is played with a single reed mouthpiece. The player blows into this and creates a column of vibrating air. Aldolphe Sax was also the inventor of the ophicleide, a large brass instrument with keys similar to a woodwind instrument. The piccolo is a smaller version of the flute and plays higher pitched notes. It is a member of the woodwind family. The piccolo s commonly confused with the fife, which is used in marching bands and is louder and shriller.Piccolos were once made from wood, glass or ivory but are now made from a variety of materials including metals and plastics. Instruments of the Orchestra The Hon. Prof. Jae-Hyeok Kim
and The Hon. Prof. Raymond Wu Bibliography Websites:
Books: The Tuba History Interesting Fact Overview The tuba was invented when Prussian Patent No. 19 was granted to Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz on September 12, 1835 for the basstuba. The original Tuba used five valves that were the forerunners of the modern piston valve. The first tenor tuba was invented by Johann’s son Carl Wilhelm Moritz. Valves made it possible for the instrument to be played low and still have a complete set of notes. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound It creates sound by vibrating the lips into a large, cupped mouthpiece and pressing different keys, which lengthen and shorten the airflow, creating higher and lower pitch. The Tuba can come in different variations, such as the Susa marching tuba. The Brass Instruments The Trombone History Tuba Repertoire Overview The trombone developed from the sackbut of the Renaissance. The sackbut has narrower tubing, does not have a water key, a slide lock or a tuning slide that are found on trombones.
During the Baroque period, the trombone was used occasionally by composers such as J.S. Bach or Haydn. Bach often paired trombones with cornetts.
In the 19th century, major changes to the construction of a trombone were made. The bore was widened and a bell garland was introduced. The innovations of Schlangenverzierungen (snake decorations) and the wider bell flare were also invented. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound Sound is produced when the player’s vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Most trombones have a sliding valve mechanism which changes pitch. Mozart Requiem Tuba Mirum (playing the melody)
Tannhäuser Overture by Richard Wagner
Brahms Symphony N. 4 The Trumpet History Interesting Fact Overview Trumpets from as far back as 1500 BC have been found. Metal trumpets from China, bronze lurs from Scandinavia and bronze and silver trumpets from Egypt have all been found. Trumpets were used for communication and religious purposes.
The trumpet was starting to be used as a musical instrument in the late Middle Ages. It was especially popular during the Baroque period and was frequently used by composers.
The pitch of a trumpet at the time was controlled fully by the player’s blowing. In 1818, Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the first valve trumpet. This became today’s valve trumpet. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the embouchure mouthpiece. Pitch is changed by pressing valves to change the length of tubing or by controlling lip tension. In Medieval times, trumpet-playing was a highly regarded and exclusive art. Instruction was only included in selective guilds. Trumpet players were also amongst the most heavily guarded in the army, due to the dependence on them to relay messages. The French Horn History Interesting Fact Overview People used to blow on the actual horns of animals before starting to make the out of metal. Early horns were simpler than modern day horns, consisting of brass tubes with a slightly flared bell coiled around a few times. They were normally played on a hunt. Change of pitch was only affected by the lips because they didn’t have valves. In the mid-18th century, horn players began inserting their right hand into the bell to change the pitch depending on how much of the opening was covered. This allowed for more notes to be played. At about 1815, pistons (later rotary valves were used) were introduced. This widened the span of notes available to be played and later gave us the horn we have today. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound The Horn (aka: the French Horn) is a brass instruments made of 3.7-4m of tubing wrapped into a coil and ending in a flared bell. The name French Horn is incorrect as it is a German instrument. The French Horn, when uncoiled, is 3.7-4 metres long. The Trumpet is perhaps the most well-known member of the brass family. The trumpet is a transposing instrument, most commonly pitched in B flat. It is made of brass tubing. The Percussion Instruments The Double Bass History Double Bass Repertoire Overview The Double Bass was developed sometime in the 15th century. It is regarded as the modern descendant of the string family. Before the 20th century, many Double Basses had only three strings. This was different to most instruments of the string family with 5-6 strings and the violin family with 4 strings. Double Basses also have a deeper sound than other members of the string family because a greater distance from top to back. The Double Bass is also the only modern bowed string instrument that is tuned in fourths. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound A Double Bass uses bowing and plucking of the strings to create music. As the bow moves across the strings it vibrates. (This also applies to the plucking) The body of the Double Bass amplifies the vibration which is the sound. The pitch is adjusted by stopping some of the strings with your fingers at different locations. The Elephant from Saint-Saëns’s Carnival of Animals
Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony The String Instruments The Cello History Notable Players Overview The cello’s roots can be traced back to the 9th century. The first bowed string instrument from Europe wass the Byzantine Empire’s lira, a pear shaped instrument with 3-5 strings.
The cello’s first direct ancestor was the Bass Violin. The Bass Violin belonged to the violin family (viol da braccio), being the largest and lowest of them all. It was slightly larger than the modern cello.
In Bologna around 1660, makers invented wire-wrapped strings and reduced the size of the bass violin to make the first cellos. Antonio Stradivari was a key contributor to the standardization of the cello. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound A violinist holds a violin upright and uses a bow to strike the strings of a violin. As the bow moves across the string(s), it vibrates. The vibrations spread through the bridge to the belly of the violin. From the belly, the vibrations are passed to the back of the instrument via a sound post. Then they spread to the whole body of the violin to produce a louder and more pleasing sound than the string alone could produce. A cellist holds a cello upright and uses a bow to strike the strings of a cello. As the bow moves across the string(s), it vibrates. The vibrations spread through the bridge to the belly of the cello. From the belly, the vibrations are passed to the back of the instrument via a sound post. Then they spread to the whole body of the cello to produce a louder and more pleasing sound than the string alone could produce. The Viola History Notable Players Overview The viola was developed in the 16th and 17th centuries, about the same time as the rest of the string family. Early luthiers tried to improve the design of violas to produce more sound.
In the late 18th century, composers began to become interested in the capabilities of “the Cinderella of the violin family”. In response, luthiers once again began to improve the viola.
The twentieth century saw the viola become a solo instrument. Advocates such as Lionel Tertis encouraged the improvement of violas and pestered composers to write for the viola. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound A violist uses a bow to strike the strings of a viola. As the bow moves across the string(s), it vibrates. The vibrations spread through the bridge to the belly of the viola. From the belly, the vibrations are passed to the back of the instrument via a sound post. Then they spread to the whole body of the viola to produce a louder and more pleasing sound than the string alone could produce. David Oistrakh (also violinist)
Yehudi Menuhin (also violinist)
Joseph Haydn (composer)
Antonin Dvorak (composer) The Violin History Notable Players Overview
The violin was developed in the early 16th century. Turkic and Mongolian horsemen from Asia were probably the earliest ‘violinists’. They had violins with two horsehair strings, played with horsehair bows and normally with a horse’s head carved at the end of the neck. It is believed that these instruments spread into other countries like China and the Middle East. There, they evolved in their own way, all of them called different names. The modern Violin came from 16th century Italy, where it came from China via the silk trading routes. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound The violin is played with a bow and by plucking, must most commonly the bow. It, like most string instruments makes music by drawing the bow/ plucking the strings to create vibrations which echo in the body of the violin and amplifies the sound. Yehudi Menuhin
Julia Fischer The viola is larger and lower than a violin. It is darker in timbre and has always been regarded as a poor relation of the violin. It commonly used in orchestral works as an accompaniment to the violins. Violas are made from wood usually, however there are a number of plastic violas for sale. The Cello is a member of the violin family, and is the second largest (with the double bass being the largest) member. It has four strings that are tuned in perfect fifths. A traditional cello has a spruce wood top, with maple for the back, sides, and neck. However carbon steel cellos are also available. The cello’s range can be compared to that of a tenor. It ranges from the second C below middle C to a high A.
The name cello is an abbreviation from the Italian word violoncello.
Cellos are made by luthiers, who also make and repair string instruments. The highest price paid an instrument was 1.2 million for a Stradivarius cello in 1988. Tambourine History Interesting Fact Overview The tambourine originated from Mesopotamia, Middle East, India, Greece and Rome, and was mainly played for religious ceremonies.
Tambourines did not appear in Western music until around Mozart’s time. Since then, the tambourine has become a standard member of the orchestra. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound The tambourine can be played in numerous ways including stroking the jingles or striking the tambourine against something. This produces a vibration, which then produces a sound. A daf is a large-sized tambourine used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, India and Turkmenistan. The Glockenspiel History Interesting Fact Overview Glockenspiels were invented in Germany during medieval times, and originally were just a set of small bells. Later, in the 16th century, the glockenspiel had a keyboard to make playing easier. At the end of the 17th century, rectangular steel bars were replacing bells. This made tuning easier and allowed the instrument to be played using a set of hammers activated by the player via keyboard system. How it is Played and how it Produces Sound The bars of the modern glockenspiel are made now of carbon steel and are struck with small headed mallets. When a key is struck, it vibrates and produces a sound. The box of the glockenspiel acts as an amplifier. The glockenspiel is sometimes held upright. The glockenspiel is a percussion instrument with a set of keys in the formation of a keyboard instrument. The keys are tuned chromatically and are struck to produce sound. It is similar to a xylophone, but has keys made out of metal which gives a shrill and sharper sound. The tambourine belongs to the percussion family.
It is a wooden or metal frame with metal jingles,
and a skin stretched over the frame. It common in
folk music. In Cremona, Italy there were eight families of luthiers in the one town. One of them, Antonio Stradivari made at least 540 violins in his life. Some small violas are actually violins with viola strings. Bibliography:
The Millbrook Press Inc.
Music of the World
The Story of Music
Bernard Brett and Nicholas Ingman
The Larousse Encyclopedia of Music (English Translation)
Reed International Books
1971, 1994 The Double Bass is a large string instrument. (180cm tall) It is made from various types of woods. For example: maple wood for the top and ebony wood for the fingerboard. The Violin is a string instrument with 4 strings usually tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest and the most high-pitched member of the violin family of the string instruments. The word violin comes from the Medieval Latin word vitula, meaning stringed instrument. The Tuba is the largest and the lowest pitched brass instrument. It was added recently to the modern symphony orchestra, in the 19th century, when it replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is a Latin for trumpet or horn. Tuba players are known as tubists or tubaists. The Horn (aka: the French Horn) is a brass instruments made of 3.7-4m of tubing wrapped into a coil and ending in a flared bell. The name French Horn is incorrect as it is a German instrument. The trombone is a member of the brass family. It is similar to the trumpet, but is lower and has a sliding mechanism to change pitch. There are contrabass trombones, bass trombones, tenor trombones, alto trombones, soprano trombones, and piccolo trombones.
Fact: The name trombone comes from the Latin word tromba meaning trumpet and the suffix –one, meaning large. Therefore trombone means large trumpet. The Largest double bass constructed was 4.25 m tall and took 16 people to play it. The trombone is the only brass instrument that can perform a true glissando (sliding up and down the scale). The Saxophone is a conical-bore woodwind instrument (informally known as the sax). It is normally made of brass. Although it is very popular in military bands, it is most often associated with jazz and classical music. Saxophone players are known as saxophonists The Cor Anglais or English Horn is a wood instrument and a member of the oboe family. It has a lower range than the Oboe by a fifth and is also a transposing instrument, as it is played a fifth lower than is written. The Cor Anglais also has a bulbous end. It is made from wood and has metal keys. Some more facts:
In Oman in the Middle East, until the 1970s, it was illegal to play the drums.
The keyboard glockenspiel is preferred by many composers as it has a wider dynamic range.
A daf is a large-sized tambourine used to accompany both popular and classical music in Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, India and Turkmenistan.
Most Cor Anglais players make their own reeds, as the the choice of timbre colour and other qualities is a choice of an individual.
The Bass Drum may have cymbal mounted on it.
The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute.
The Clarinet family includes the bass, B flat and A clarinets.
Piccolos are also played professionally by flute players.
The trombone is the only brass instrument that can perform a true glissando (sliding up and down the scale).
The French Horn, when uncoiled, is 3.7-4 metres long.
The Tuba can come in different variations, such as the sousaphone, which is for marching.