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Knee Joint Anatomy Imaging Pathologies

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by

Andres Erazo

on 14 August 2016

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Transcript of Knee Joint Anatomy Imaging Pathologies

The Knee Joint
Anatomical Structure
Femur
Tibia
Patella
Fibula
Bones
Ligaments
Lateral Colateral Ligament
Medial Colateral Ligament
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Ligaments Function
Cartilages and Meniscus
Femoral Condyles
Lateral and Medial Tibial Plateau
Patellofemoral Groove
Lateral and Medial Meniscus
Tendons, Muscles, Nerves, Arteries and Veins
Injuries
Medical Imaging
Quadriceps Tendons
Patellar Tendon
Hamstring Tendons
Hamstring Muscles
Quadriceps Muscles
Sciatic Nerve
Tibial Nerve
Common Peroneal Nerve
Poplitial Artery
Poplitial Vein
Medial Collateral Ligament
Lateral Collateral Ligament
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Knee Sprains
Ligament sprains have three degrees of severity:
Grade I => Microscopic Tears
Grade II => Partially Torn
Grade III => Completely Torn
Produced by a sudden: stop, twist or change in direction
Produced by a direct impact to the front of the knee
Produced by a blow to the inside of the knee; however rare to happen
Produced by a blow to the inside of the knee or by a severe knee twist
Patella
Femur
Tibia
Fractures
They are caused by high energy trauma, such as falls from significant heights and motor vehicle collisions.
Dislocation
Tears
Bones
Tendons
Meniscus
It is caused by an abnormality in the structure of a person's knee or by a high energy trauma
It is caused by falls, direct force to the front of the knee, and landing awkwardly from a jump
It is caused by arthritis or aging; or by wisting, cutting, pivoting, or being tackled.
Osteoarthritis
The cartilage gradually wears away and changes begin to occur in the adjacent bone
Rheumatoid Arthritis.
It is produced as a result of the immune system attacking the synovium membrane. It causes inflammation of the joint and can lead to the destruction of the cartilage and bone
Chondromalacia
It is the softening of the articular cartilage of the patella. It is caused by injury, overuse, misalignment of the patella, or muscle weakness
Osgood-Schlatter Disease
It affects the upper tibia. The tendon is stretched so much that it tears away from the tibia and takes a fragment of bone with it
Baker Cysts
Are caused by fluid buildup that can cause a bump and pain in the back of the knee.
Summary
We could say that pathologies produce morphological and biochemical changes on the elements of the knee; measurable by medical imaging techniques:
Common Pathologies
MRI
X-Ray & CT
Arthroscopy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRI
It''s a camera-guided joint surgery for:
Examination
Surgery
X-Ray
X-Ray show:
Fractures,
Dislocations,
Arthritis, and
Abnormally joint spaces
Arthroscopy
It can provide detailed images of various sections of the knee, such as:
Cartilage,
Tendons,
Muscles,
Tumors
Joint
To look
Principally used for:
Meniscal or cartilage tears,
Chondromalacia, and
ACL tears with instability
CT X-Ray
A 3D X-Ray to precisely define a fracture or deformity
It allows: a side view, skyline view and an anterior posterior view
Side View
PA View
Fluid Removal
It is a technique to do diagnosis for diseases in the lab. The fluid is used to look for crystals, bacteria and/or pus
Blood vessels,
Ligaments,
Bone fractures,
Open MRI Machine
Normal MRI Machine
MRI - T2 Weighted
MRI - T1 Weighted
Human Anatomy & Physiology, Elaine N Marieb, Katja Hoehn, Person
http://www.healthline.com/health/knee-mri-scan
http://w-radiology.com/knee-mri.php
http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/knee-pain/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-of-the-knee
http://www.cigna.com/healthwellness/hw/medical-tests/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-knee-tu6385#tu6387
http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/knee-pain-overview?page=3
http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/xray_knee.html
http://arthriticknee.hubpages.com/hub/The-Normal-Knee-X-Ray-What-are-its-features
https://www.radiology.wisc.edu/sections/msk/interventional/Knee_CT_arthrogram/index.php
https://www.radiology.wisc.edu/sections/msk/interventional/Knee_CT_arthrogram/index.php
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoarthritis/multimedia/knee-arthritis/img-20006349
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00109
http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Knee_Problems/default.asp#7
http://traumaortopedics.com/paginas/mirodilla.html
http://www.rehabilitacionblog.com/2011/01/las-nuevas-protesis-de-cadera-y-rodilla.html
http://www.niams.nih.gov/Portal_en_espanol/Informacion_de_Salud/Problemas_de_rodillas/default.asp
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/ency/article/002974.htm
http://www.healthcare.siemens.com/siemens_hwem-hwem_ssxa_websites-context-root/wcm/idc/siemens_hwem-hwem_ssxa_websites-context-root/wcm/idc/groups/public/@global/@imaging/@mri/documents/download/mdaw/odc2/~edisp/automated_morphological_knee_cartilage_analysis_of_3d_mri_at_3t-00555713.pdf
http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/human-knee-joint-anatomy-animation-3d-model/559193
http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/3d-model-knee-anatomy/776589
http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/femur-bone-3d-3ds/761433
http://www.eorthopod.com/content/adult-knee-fractures
http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/1201/p2599.html
http://www.sportsmd.com/GolferMD_ArticleList/id/43.aspx#sthash.0kDoE7rP.dpbs
http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00325
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Bibliography
Thank You
Do you have any question?
Synovial Joint
Mahines
MRI disadvantages are:
It is relatively expensive
It may not be available in all places
Contraindicated in patients with implanted materials (metals)
It can trigger claustrophobia
By Benalcazar Daniel
Erazo Andres
Full transcript