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Syrian civil war
Transcript of Syrian civil war
In March 2011, protesters demanded an end to the authoritarian practices of the Assad regime, in place since Assad’s father, Ḥafiz al-Assad, became president in 1971.
Traditional Centrifugal forces
Approximately 9 million Syrians have fled their homes since the beginning of civil war in March 2011. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, about 2.5 million have fled to Syria's closest neighbours: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq. 6.5 million are internally displaced within Syria. Also, about 100,000 have declared asylum in Europe and a small number have been offered resettlement by countries such as Germany and Sweden.
Islam, Christianity, Judaism.
Arabic, Turkish and Persian.
Heart of the Arab and Islamic worlds.
Origin of alphabets, and law codes.
Conservative ideas about women.
Syrian civil war
United Arab Emirates
(Development index 1)
The United States
Protests are held in different parts of the country
100 people are reportedly killed on the 23rd.
President Bashar al-Assad vows to crush what he called "terrorists". Protests calling for the downfall of the regime spread and strengthen.
The US imposes sanctions on Assad and senior Syrian officials for human rights abuses.
The Syrian National Council is formed, the first opposition coalition of diverse groups seeking an end to Assad's rule.
The Arab League votes to suspend Syria’s membership.
First major attack in the capital; al-Qaeda fighters are blamed.
Jabhat al-Nusra, al-Qaeda’s branch in Syria, announces its creation. It has been described as "one of the most effective rebel forces" in Syria.
Russia and China veto a resolution in the UN Security Council that backs an Arab League plan calling for Assad to step down.
Syrian National Council, forms a military council to organise and unify all armed resistance
The European Union
The Arab League
The United Nations Security Council
The Islamic State (IS, ISIS, ISIL)
Middle East comprises the Arabian Peninsula, the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and the Lebanon coast. Some scholars argue that it starts Egypt and ends in Iran. Other authors go as far as include all of northern Africa.
The UN Human Rights Council later releases a report accusing Assad’s forces and pro-government militiamen of war crimes
Syria threatens to unleash chemical and biological weapons if the country faces a foreign attack, the country’s first acknowledgement that it possesses weapons of mass destruction.
Assad blames "murderous criminals" for violence in Syria, ignores international demands to step down and pledges to continue the battle
The European Union ends its prohibition on sending weapons to help Syrian rebels.
Obama authorizes sending weapons to Syrian rebels after obtaining evidence that Assad’s government used chemical weapons against opposition forces.
The Assad regime is accused of using chemical weapons in the Damascus suburbs to kill hundreds of civilians, including many children as they slept. The government denies these claims.
Obama says he has decided the United States should take military action against Syria.
A possible diplomatic solution to avoid a US military strike arose when Syria welcomed a suggestion to move all of the country’s chemical weapons under international control. UN Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution requiring the Syrian regime to dismantle its chemical weapons arsenal.
Officials from Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons arrive in Damascus to monitor the dismantling of Syria’s chemical weapons arsenal.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon convenes the first round of peace talks in Geneva
Syria holds a presidential election in government-held areas. More than one person could stand as a presidential candidate for the first time since the Assad family came to power more four decades ago.
The UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution on Syria allowing aid convoys to go into rebel-held areas without government approval
The Islamic State is the most successful group for now, controlling the main areas of Syrian oil and gas fields. On the 19th, a video released by ISIS shows the beheading of U.S. journalist James Foley and threatens the life of another American if President Barack Obama doesn't end military operations.
Aerial operations begin over Syria. Military aircraft from Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates participate in the airstrikes against ISIS. The Islamic State release a video of the beheading of another American journalist, Steven Sotloff, as a second message to America. The video addresses Barack Obama "Just as your missiles continue to strike our people, our knife will continue to strike the necks of your people."
Place of origin for the older civilizations of the world
that grew along rivers.
Contains 2/3 world's oil reserves.
Three main ethnic groups; Arabs, Turks, and the Iranians.
Largest cities: Cairo, Tehran, Istanbul, Baghdad, Riyadh, Jeddah, Ankara
Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers.
There are 13 million first-generation migrants from Arab nations in the world, of which 5.8 reside in other Arab countries.
GNI per capita
The Syrian government used violence to suppress demonstrations, making extensive use of police, military, and paramilitary forces.
Opposition militias began to form in 2011, and by 2012 the conflict had expanded into a full-fledged civil war. (Encyclopedia Britannica)
The Syrian conflict has been growing in intensity for more than two years. United Nations has estimated more than 100,000 dead and millions displaced.
(González, G 508)
(Cultural Characteristics 1)
Strong loyalty to family.
Corridor for invasions and empires.
Origin of Persians, Romans and ottomans.
Tourism and pilgrimage.
Crisis in Syria. 2014. New York Times. Web. Recovered from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/syria/index.html
Syrian Crisis. 2014. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. Recovered from http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1781371/Syrian-Civil-War
ISIS. Beauchamp, Z. (2014). VOX. Web. Recovered from http://www.vox.com/cards/things-about-isis-you-need-to-know/isis-syria
Syria Crisis: Key Countries. 2014. BBC World. Web. Recovered from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-23849587
Table 1. Human Development Index. (2014). Human Development Reports. Recovered from hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-1-human-development-index-and-its-components
Cultural Characteristics of Middle East. (2014) World Regions Project. Recovered from worldregionsproject.wikispaces.com/Cultural+Characteristics+of+Middle+East
González, G. (2013). Regional Studies. [Versión Ebook]
al Jazeera Online Magazine. (9 de August de 2014). Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/interactive/2012/02/201225111654512841.html
Carter, C. J. (20 de August de 2014). CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/19/world/meast/isis-james-foley/
CBC News. (3 de April de 2014). Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/syria-dashboard/
Chelsea J. Carter, M. C. (3 de October de 2014). CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/03/world/meast/isis-alan-henning-beheading/
Fantz, C. J. (9 de September de 2014). CNN News. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/02/world/meast/isis-american-journalist-sotloff/
Robson, S. (14 de September de 2014). Mirror Online. Retrieved from http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/david-haines-beheading-full-transcript-4256996
Syrian Refugees. (February de 2014). Retrieved from http://syrianrefugees.eu/