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Transcript of Artificial Intelligence
What is Artificial Intelligence?
Marvin Minsky is an American cognitive scientist in the field of Artificial Intelligence and the co-founder of Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. He has made many contributions to the field of AI ever since he got introduced to it. He has made studies in the fields of cognitive psychology, mathematics, computer linguistics, robotics and optics. In 1951, he built a SNARC, the first neural network simulator. This helped scientists to understand the process in the neural system in the body. In recent years he has worked chiefly on imparting to machines the human capacity for common sense reasoning.
Intelligent systems are systems that use the available data to make decisions. They receive data from the environment, react to that data, and produce an intelligent response. They all have an input corresponding to senses, a choice of actions based on response rules, sometimes called "productions", and the ability to act, be it as graphics on a computer screen, as a text output or as limb movements. Most have a memory for storing experiences and the ability to learn. Some examples of intelligent systems are:
•Chess- strategic computer-based game where the user versus the computer
•ASIMO- Japanese humanoid robot made by Honda™ that responds to human commands
•Nintendo Wii™- a motion –based game system used to play on televisions.
•SIRI- A Macintosh software that allows for the users to ask it questions and get voiced replies. It is an intelligent personal assistant.
•Talkback services- voice recognition software homed by telephone operators, made to recognise words spoken by user and understand/interpret them.
•Track ID/Shazam- music recognition software based in mobile phones.
Computer Chess is a strategic board game played on a checked board with sixteen pieces on each side. The aim of the game is for the user to kill the opponent’s king. The basic concept of chess was invented in India, at the time of the Gupta Empire in the early 6th century. Around 1745, major changes were made to the game in England, to how it is essentially known as today. Now, competitions are held for chess games where two humans can verse each other, or, a human can verse a computer. When looking at the computer-based version of chess, its software is designed to play against the user on the computer.
The software would have been developed with a set of instructions inbuilt into its rule/code book. For example, when the user makes a move, the code or rule book has around 20 moves to counter your move, and each move will have information on what the effect of that move will be and what the opposition could do to counter it. The computer has a tree of options that continue like this for a long, long time. Once the computer generates the tree, it evaluates each board position. It analyses each board position and determines whether it is ‘good’ or ‘bad’. This is done by using the EVALUATION FUNCTION. Also since each piece on the board has different values and moves, it puts a value ‘number’ on each one so it is easier to identify a piece to move. After considering all the possible options, it chooses a piece to move and waits for the user to move again, only to redo the whole process.
Expert systems are an artificial intelligence based system that converts the knowledge of an expert in a specific subject to software code. This code can be used to merge with other code to answer questions that are entered by the user. Expert systems usually contain three parts; knowledge base, an interface engine and an interface. They are designed to analyse queries and based on other information, provide a solution for the user. Some examples of different types of expert systems are:
•WHALE WATCHER- It assumes the user has been whale watching and is using the system to determine what type of whale they have spotted.
AKINATOR- an internet game based on 20 questions which can determine the character the user is thinking of by asking a series of questions.
•HEARSAY I & II- speech recognition systems
•MACSYMA- one of the most capable and reliable symbolic-numerical maths engines
•MYCIN- provide doctors on the diagnosis and treatment of blood infections
•PROSPECTOR- helps geologists locate ore deposits and finds drilling and mining sites
•PXDES- helps with diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, a lung disease, X-ray.
is an expert system which assists in pneumoconiosis, a lung disease, X-ray diagnosis. This system takes a picture of our lungs from the upper side of our body which looks like a shadow. The shadow taken is used to determine the degree and type of harmness. The expert system,
PXDES uses three modes, the knowledge base, the explanation interface and the knowledge acquisition. The data (problem) is entered by the user into the expert system. The explanation interface uses the knowledge base to examine each part of the problem and observes all the signs and symptoms present.
Then it uses the knowledge acquisition mode to diagnose the disease and the degree and stage at where it is lying at. It also allows for the medical experts to add or change any information given. PXDES is an expert system because allows for the medical experts to enter their queries and based on the information in the knowledge base; it determines a degree or stage for the disease and also allows the users to edit the information.
The data is entered through a certain code where the knowledge base converts it for the users to understand. Unfortunately, there is no screenshot available to display this expert system as it is private software.
By Srivaishnavi Danthurty
DEMONS, NEURAL NETWORKS and KNOWLEDGE BASES
Demons are programs that start working when they are needed or necessary. It is based on how knowledge comes to our minds when it is necessary, for example, during exams. Demons are an important feature in artificial intelligence as they allow for the computer to self-modify itself. For example, demons are attached to anti-virus software’s. When an email arrives, or when websites are opened, the demon is triggered into action. It identifies specific file types that indicate that a virus is present. Most demons operate automatically without the user's knowledge.
A neural network is a computer system which is based on how the human brain works. It is, therefore, capable of learning. It contains a large number of processors connected in a similar way to nerve cells in the human brain. These processors form a network and act like cells in the brain. A neural network finds connections between sets of data to attempt the understanding of the data. They are very good at finding a link between the data and a result. For example, financial firms use neural networks to predict the characteristics of the economy.
The knowledge base is a set of general rules and if-then rules. They use the process of deduction when a condition is proven true. They usually contain the rules and or facts that are needed for an intelligent or expert system to run. Depending on the system, it contains certain information which can be used to predict or determine (decision-making). Knowledge bases usually contain 2 types of knowledge. They are factual and heuristic factual knowledge is information found in texts or widely known facts. Heuristic are general rules or probabilities rather than instructions. They are usually stored as if-then statements (IF a condition is satisfies, THEN a certain action is completed).
There are many differences between the demons, knowledge bases and neural networks. To start with, demons are only triggered when it is needed whereas knowledge bases are inbuilt into expert systems and intelligent systems; so are neural networks. Knowledge bases contain information for the artificial intelligent systems to function whereas demons are usually attached to anti-virus systems when they are called and neural networks learn and function like the human brain, in decision-making circumstances. Contrasting between demons and neural networks, demons represent how information springs to our mind when it is needed whereas neural networks represent how the whole brain functions. Also, knowledge bases give out information or predictions whereas neural networks and demons do not.
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
FOR A RANGE OF DIFFERENT
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
Games- FIFA 4
Robotics: The hardware required for robots are:
Sensors- to detect and interpret movement
Camera- to use as vision for the robot
Metal/wood/plastic body parts and wires- to use to assemble the robots
Fast processing chip- to help process and evaluate decisions quickly
Graphics card- to help the robot process graphics and video captured from the camera
Software’s required are:
Natural Language processing- to process and interpret multiple languages
Voice recognition software- To recognise, evaluate and respond to voice
Robot programming- The program and instructions coded and written for the robot to respond to
Movement recognition software- to recognise and respond to movement picked up by the camera (the coded language part).
Simulations- Flight simulator
Modelling and Simulations: The hardware required for models and simulations are:
Monitor- for the user to view, interpret and respond to flight simulation view
Keyboard + Mouse- For the user to communicate and interpret the graphical interface of the simulation.
Graphics card- to process all kinds of graphics required for the flight simulator to work with ease.
Large storage space- Simulations in particular, require a large amount of space to save in order to function properly.
Joystick- To use for flight simulators
Fast processing chip- to help the simulator to function faster and smoothly
Software’s required are:
Spread sheets- to create and use simulations(might contain information/codes for the simulator)
Natural language processing- to process and interpret multiple languages
Graphical user interface- for easy communication between the programs and computers and the users
Relating simulation software’s- The actual flight simulation program that can be found in a disc or soft copy.
Expert Systems- PXDES
Expert Systems: The hardware required for expert systems are:
Graphics card- to get clear quality graphics when expert systems are displaying pictures
Large Storage space- To easily comfortably use and process the software
Monitor- To view the diagnosis displayed by PXDES
Keyboard + Mouse- For the user to communicate with PXDES to enter symptoms and signs.
Software’s required for expert systems are:
Natural language processing- to process multiple types of languages said by the users
Database- to store information in the knowledge base about the lung diesease
Software/inference engine- to apply the rules or procedures from the knowledge base
Graphical user interface- for easy communication between the systems and the user
Intelligent Systems- Chess
Intelligent Systems: The hardware probably required for intelligence systems include:
Monitor- to view the game and the pieces to move
Keyboard + Mouse- to communicate with the pieces and the computer
Speakers- to listen to the computer state its movements
Microphone- to relay sound/words to the game so the pieces can move.
Fast processing chip- needed to work quickly and process all the actions and code at once
Software’s necessary for intelligence systems are:
Natural language processing- to process and interpret different languages
Voice recognition software- to recognise and interpret voice when you say the movements
Games: The hardware required for games are:
Monitor- to view and respond to the game
Keyboard + Mouse- for the user to communicate with the game (play as characters in the game)
Graphics card- to process the high levels of fast moving, quality graphics that are displayed in the soccer-based game
Fast processing chip- for the game to run smoothly and with ease
Large Storage Space- to store the large file and all the instructions that come with it.
Controller- to use to operate the characters in the game
Speakers- to enhance gaming experience by listening to accompanying sounds
Software’s required are:
The actual game to play the game- the cd or soft copy FIFA 4
Natural language processing- to process and respond to multiple languages
Graphical user interface- To view the game using graphics
Book: Hi-Tech IST, Chapter 8
Book: Information and Software Technology 7-10, Chapter 1