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Coronary Heart Disease

Chronic Disease
by

DASK team

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Coronary Heart Disease

Team DASK Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Build up of fatty deposits on the inner wall of the coronary arteries.
These fatty deposits can build up over time, gradually clogging the arteries.
Known as atherosclerosis. Causes There are no set causes of heart disease but rather risk factors e.g.:
age
gender
menopause
genes
smoking high blood pressure
blood lipids
diabetes
obesity
level of physical activity Chest Pain 'angina pectoris'.
Pain felt during rest is unstable angina
Pain during physical activity is stable angina
Shortness of breath
Not everyone experiences chest pain.
Other symptoms such as fatigue and weakness.
Nausea Signs and symptoms Medical Treatments Angiotensin converting
enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Non-Medicinal Treatments Angioplasty & Stent Implantation
Bypass Surgery
Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators Angioplasty & Stent Implantation Also known as percutaneous coronary intervention
a small balloon is inflated inside coronary arteries to open up an area of your arteries that has become very narrow
Improves blood flow to heart
An expandable mesh tube (a 'stent') is usually put into your artery to keep it open. Bypass Surgery Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)
a blood vessel is taken from your chest, leg or forearm and grafted to your coronary artery
Lets blood 'detour' past a narrowing in this artery
Improves blood flow to your heart muscle and reduces angina (chest pain) Diagnosis ECG (electrocardiogram)
Blood tests
Echocardiography Implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD) Source: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/images/angioplasty_2011.jpg Source: http://intensivecare.hsnet.nsw.gov.au/five/images/coronary_artery_bypass.jpg A small device is put into your chest and connected to your heart to monitor and correct your heartbeat.
Stops abnormal heart rhythm by pacing your heart, or in more serious situations, it can give your heart a controlled electric shock to try to return it to its normal rhythm.
Can act as a pacemaker if it is beating very slowly
Collects and stores information about your heart's electrical activity for your doctor to check. Source: http://fromyourdoctor.com/document/Content/cardiology/scd_icd.jpg Scenario Apeksha is 56 years old
Recently diagnosed with coronary heart disease
Visits her health care professional team to manage her chronic condition QUIZ TIME!! What is the purpose of calcium channel blockers?
a. Strengthening bones.
b. Reduce angina.
c. Decrease heart rate.
d. Narrowing large arteries.
e. None of the above. What percentage of deaths in Australia in 2006 were due to coronary heart disease?
a.37%
b.24%
c.17%
d.15%
e.5% FLASHBACK!! ONE WEEK LATER . . . References Beta
blockers Calcium Channel Blockers Nitrates Source: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/images/ather_lowres.gif Risk outweighs Benefits Source: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1998/illpres/nitroglycerine.jpg Prevents the production
of angiotensin 2 enzyme Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-O-OjccLtH8I/TrO5ljN4glI/AAAAAAAAAfQ/sCBvo6T9pOg/s1600/aspirin+%25281%2529.jpg Source: http://www.caraipm.com.au/skillsEDIT/clientuploads/4/Phriceline%20Pharmacy%201_2.jpg [1] Kusumoto F.M. Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine: Chapter 10, Cardiovascular Disorders: Heart Disease [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010 [cited 2012 Aug 16]. Available from: http://www.accesspharmacy.com.ezproxy2.library.usyd.edu.au/content.aspx?aID=5367879
[2] U.S. National Library of Medicine. Coronary Heart Disease [Internet]. [Updated 2012 Jul 27; cited 2012 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov.ezproxy2.library.usyd.edu.au/medlineplus/ency/article/007115.htm
[3] National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. What are the signs and symptoms of coronary heart disease? [Internet]. 2011 [updated 2011 May 1; cited 2012 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cad/signs.html
[4] National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. How is Coronary Heart Disease Diagnosed? [Internet]. 2011 [updated 2011 May 1; cited 2012 Aug 20]. Available from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cad/diagnosis.html
[5] Izenberg E., Dowshen S. Heart Disease-Complete Human Diseases and Conditions Vol. 2. [monograph online]. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons; 2008 [cited 2012 Aug 16]. Available from: Gale Virtual Reference Library
[6] Heart Foundation. Coronary heart disease [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2012 Aug 18]. Available at: http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/cardiovascular-conditions/pages/coronary-heart-disease.aspx
[7] NHS Choices. Coronary Heart Disease- Treatment [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Oct 19;cited 2012 Aug 11]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/Treatment.aspx.
[8] O'Rourke RA. Pharmacotherapy in Primary Care: Chapter 3. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Coronary Heart Disease [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009 [Accessed 2012 Aug 16]. Available from: http://www.accesspharmacy.com/content.aspx?aID=3600715.
[9] AMH. Chapter 6- Cardiovascular Drugs [Internet]. 2012 July [updated 2012 July; cited 2012 Aug 12]. Available from: http://amh.hcn.com.au.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/view.php?page=chapter6/index.html
[10] Heart Foundation. Coronary heart disease- reducing risk in heart disease [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2012 Aug 11]. Available from: http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/information-for-professionals/Clinical-Information/Pages/coronary-heart-disease.aspx
[11] Hung J. Aspirin for cardiovascular disease prevention. MJA-The medical Journal of Australia[Internet]. 2003[cited 2012 Aug15]; 179 (3): 147-152. Available from: https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2003/179/3/aspirin-cardiovascular-disease-prevention
[12] Boden WE, O'Rourke R,A., Teo KK, Hartigan PM, Maron DJ, Kostuk WJ, et al. Optimal Medical Therapy with or without PCI for Stable Coronary Disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12; 356(15): 1503-16.
[13] AIHW. Coronary heart disease (AIHW) [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2012 Aug 18]. Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/coronary-heart-disease a few months later . . . So which treatment did Apeksha undergo? Statistics
17% of deaths in 2006 were due to coronary heart disease
20.3% of Australians over 75 are currently suffering from heart disease [7], [8], [9] [9], [10], [11] [5], [6] [1],[2],[3] [4] Source: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/echo/during.html [12], [13]
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