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A Critical Evaluation of The South African World Cup 2010 As
Transcript of A Critical Evaluation of The South African World Cup 2010 As
Information about the world cup
Definitions of regeneration and legacy
Models of Regeneration
Aims of the World Cup and if and how these were achieved
Positive and negative impacts upon local communities, businesses, landscape and environment
Legacy and effects on different social classes
South Africa World Cup 2010
Awarded the sporting event in 2004 beating off competition from Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco
First World cup held in Africa
Event Dates: 11th June-11th July 2010
Matches Played in 10 stadiums across 9 host cities
32 Nations participated in the Tournament and was won by Spain
It's a term that has different meanings for different people, ranging from large scale activities that promote economic growth to neighborhood interventions that improve quality of life. It can be seen as a set of activities that reverse economic, social and physical decline in areas where market forces will not do so, for example without the support of the government (Allerdalecouncil 2012).
"To improve and grow a place or system through processes which aim to make an area more active or successful."
Immediate consequences of the world cup
A Critical Evaluation of The South African World Cup 2010 As a Tool For Regeneration
Sport Led Regeneration Models
"A tangible or in-tangible thing handed down by a predecessor, a long lasting effect of an event or process"
Mangan 2008; 1869
Without regeneration legacy will not occur
Used for Alternate events but still struggle financial
9/10 Stadium are in debt
"We should have prepared better for how the stadium would be used" Pascoe 2010
Alternate futures have been explored for the existing stadium
Even with legacy planning, success is not guaranteed
2010 Fifa World Cup Legacy Trust
"South Africans would continue to benefit from the 2010 tournament long after the final whistle had been blown"
Supports a variety of charitable initiatives
Fifa contributed $100 million to the trust in 2010
"20 Centres for 2010" which aim to achieve positive social change through football
"National treasury invested more than $2.1bn in transport and infrastructure" Ndebele 2010
However who were these transport improvements aimed at?
"The Tournament did a great job regarding infrastructure development such as roads and stadiums... but when it comes to the countries citizens it's still hard , there is nothing that has changed" Focus Group created by Human Science Research Council
"Traveling on the bus from predominantly white suburbs to predominantly black suburbs was symbolically different: It changed the city's defecto segregation" Al-Khali
A reduction in crime rate was seen
The "amount of people walking around in previously considered dangerous parts of the city at night increased"
"Before, in 2010, the police used to come. You'd find police cars around the area. But now, no more. Safety was so good, you could see people leaving at night. But now, no more. " Tshabangu
A Legacy For The Wealthy, but What of the Poor?
"Sport has the power to change the world. It has the power to unite in a way that little else does."
– Nelson Mandela,
Only "3% agreed the poor and disadvantaged benefited from the world cup" SASAS report
"South Africa benefited a lot, the only thing is those who have benefited is the well off.... the poor who owned small businesses did not" SASAS
"All the problems that bedeviled this country will resurface"
Jobs were not permanent so many of the poor only benefited in the short term
"The World Cup Precipitated a sense of Economic Illusion"
The South African government has used the World Cup as a catalyst for development, and to address the social ills of crime and race tensions.....It has been a success on all fronts"
Wanacott and Stewart 2012
"Net economic gain of $US 3bn" Thornton 2004
"0.94%GDP and the creation of 50,000 jobs"Bohlman and Vand Heerden 2008
"Direct expenditure of $3.9bn..... causes a total impact of $6.58 bn after a positive multiplier affect" Thornton 2008
South Africa Treasury 2010 " Tournament will add 0.4% GDP in 2010"
1/3rd of South African people thought they would personally benefit from the sporting event. (The human science research council)
The Creation of New Jobs
"450,000 Jobs Created" Gibson 2010
"Government estimates that 200,000 jobs were created in construction" Wonacott 2010
Greater Tax base
Anger due to perception that black owned businesses were handing jobs to immigrants
Corrective rape of lesbians
AIDS campaigners accused Fifa of blocking the distribution of condoms in and around the grounds
Fifa tried to block all other sporting events from occurring in host cities during the tournament
Local vendors were prohibited from selling food and merchandise within a 1.5 km radius of any stadium hosting a World Cup Match
$1.2b in terms of sponsorship from 6 brands.
Exploitation by Fifa
Exclusion Zones where South Africa's constitution was temporarily suspended
"South Africa's world cup by name only"
South Africa is the most unequal society in the world having overtaken Brazil in 2009" Cottle 2010
So who actually benefited financially ?
"Our approach to the World Cup has been that it was never going to be a revenue raising excessive. Certainly it would be wrong to view the World Cup as a significant contributor in itself. The concessions we had to give Fifa are simply to demanding and overwhelming for us to have monetary benefits"
The People In Blikkiesdorp were re-located to create an illusory image of South Africa
Many inhabitants claim that the living conditions are harsher than the townships created by the government before the end of apartheid
"No space to sleep, no running water and constant brutality by police"
Blikkiesdorp is a clear example of the regression of South Africa
Much was promised by South African government to its people but few benefits were seen.
Intangible benefits were evident, regenerating national pride and positively changing worldwide perception of South Africa.
We believe this was a well planned and very costly illusion. The core fabrics of South African society were left untouched and out the way of the worlds cameras.
The tangible benefits of the world cup were greatly exaggerated to legitimize profiteering by FIFA, its local partners and local monopoly capitalists Cottle, 2010
Knott, B., Fyall, A. & Jones, I. 2013, "The nation-branding legacy of the 2010 FIFA World Cup for South Africa", Journal of hospitality marketing & management, vol. 22, no. 5/6, pp. 569-595.
Africa's world cuphttps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FSqvmQ5M7h0C&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=and+so+the+green+point+stadium+in+cape+town+was+designed+by+the+german+architectual&source=bl&ots=glPip9KegX&sig=FREFqmANypifO-PghHUazuizhOc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=VGHsVPO9I8T8UpG0g8gJ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=and%20so%20the%20green%20point%20stadium%20in%20cape%20town%20was%20designed%20by%20the%20german%20architectual&f=false
Primary evaluation of world cup, Eddie Cottle: http://www.sah.ch/data/D23807E0/ImpactassessmentFinalSeptember2010EddieCottle.pdf
world cup legacy: http://www.southafrica.info/2010/
War on poverty: http://ccs.ukzn.ac.za/files/Bond%20Desai%20Maharaj%20Fifa%20critique%20in%20zuma's%20own%20goal.pdf