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History 10- Native Americans

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Jackie Jacobs

on 30 August 2013

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Transcript of History 10- Native Americans

Most art was created as symbols
Rocks, feathers, cloth and clay
Totem poles were decorated with intricate designs
Represented family's status and history
Basket weaving of reeds and corn husks
Blanket weaving
Navajo are famous for their blankets
In colder regions, art was used as a worship to animals
Art
Religion
Believed the natural world was filled with spirits
Past generations continued to exist as guides in he present
Some tribes believed in one Supreme Being
"Great Spirit", "Great Mystery, "Creative Power","Creator"
division of labor: the assignment of different tasks by gender age, or status.

ex: Kwakiutl: slaves --> commoners --> nobility
Native American Societies around 1492
Geography
The Extent of Diversity
Social and Commercial Organization
Role of Women
No two Native American tribes were exactly the same
In lots of cases they lived on opposite sides of the country, so naturally they were very diverse.
Each tribe had their own language, culture, history and beliefs.
Government Structure
An example of a very well-known Native American governmental structure is the League of the Iroquois. This was a combination of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaga, and Senecas.
The league was a confederation that created a non-aggression pact among the five tribes, where they shared their concerns and made decisions with representatives from each tribe. These meetings were held primarily to discuss the European activity held in their lands.
Most of Native American tribes were functioning under a self-governing system, where the government had the right to enforce criminal and civil laws, to exile non-Native Americans or Native Americans from their territories, to regulate tribal activities with neighboring tribes or Europeans, etc.
Social
strong ties among family numbers (kinship)
help to pass down tradition
elders teach young ones, and young ones respect elders
family included aunts, uncles, cousins, etc, and usually lived together in clans or under the same roof
families then got together to contribute to community
Leadership
Sioux women put the Tepees up & down
Take care of children
Help men hunt
Gathered food
Make & repair clothing, weapons, blankets, jewlery
Pueblo make pottery made of water and clay
There were even some medicine WOMEN
Women were seen as vital to keep the tribe alive/stability

FAMILY ORGANIZATION
Community Organization
Linguistics
In North America there were over 200 different tribes speaking over 200 different languages.
Some of these languages include: Navajo, Cree, Ojibwa, Cherokee, and Apache
The Navajo language was used in WWII by the United States as a code language to convey many high security messages.
Commercial
The main way other tribes interact and get to know each other is by trade

both local and far distance
things they traded: basic goods, exotic objects, medicine etc.
each tribe had a specialty
tactics:
Algonquian: going from village to village
Tsimshian: setting up grease camps
trading centers/merchants
trade routs were extensive and thorough


Work Cited
Ancestral Pueblo: Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde National Park. Photograph. Britannica Online for Kids. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-133251>.

"Cermonies Of The Cherokee." Echtoa Cherokee Tribe Of Alabama Wolf Clan. Echtoa Cherokee Tribe Of Alabama Wolf Clan, n.d. Web. <http://www.echotacherokeewolfclan.com/id1.html>.

Cherokee Ceremony. N.d. Photograph. About Native Americans. Blogger. Web. <http://aboutnativeamericans.blogspot.com/p/about-cherokee-gods.html>.

"Iroquois - Religion and Expressive Culture." Religion and Expressive Culture. Advameg, n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2013. <http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Iroquois-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html>.

" Iroquois Midwinter Ceremony." Iroquois Midwinter Ceremony. Weebly, n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2013. <http://iroquoismidwinterceremony.weebly.com/midwinter-ceremony.html>.

"Native American Art and Culture." Indians.org. N.p., 2013. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.indians.org/articles/native-american-art.html>.

"Navajo Blanket." Smithsonian Education. Smithsonian Center, n.d. Web. 29 Aug.
2013. <http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/textiles/english/gallery/ navb_de.htm>.

"Navajo Code Talkers." Chart. U.S. History. Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, n.d. Web. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/1a.asp>.

"Native American Southwestern Fabric." Navajo Southwestern Fabric. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.wholesale-fabric-discount-store.com/mall/Navajo_Southwestern_Native_American_Fabric.htm>.

Native American Totem Pole. Collins Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://alacarte.pugetsound.edu/subject-guide/218-Northwest-Coast-Native-American-Art>.

"Native American Women." The Important Role of Native American Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.indians.org/articles/native-american-women.html>.

Plains Indians: tepees. Photograph. Britannica Online for Kids. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-114017>.

"Pueblo pottery." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/482801/Pueblo-pottery>.

Redish, Laura, and Orrin Lewis. "Algonquin Indian Fact Sheet." Facts for Kids: Algonquin Indians (Algonquins). Native Languages of the Americas, n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.bigorrin.org/algonquin_kids.htm>.

Redish, Laura, and Orrin Lewis. "Shoshone Indian Fact Sheet." Facts for Kids: Shoshone Indians (Shoshoni). Native Languages of the Americas, n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.bigorrin.org/shoshone_kids.htm>.

Rehling, John. "Native American Languages." Native American Languages. The Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University, n.d. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.cogsci.indiana.edu/farg/rehling/nativeAm/ling.html>.
http://www.ushistory.org/us/1a.asp
Art and Religion
Clothing
"Navajo Blanket" from 1873
Native American Totem Pole
Ceremonies
Algonquin tribe:
Women wore long dresses with detachable sleeves
Men wore breechcloths and leggins
Both genders wore moccasins in bad weather
Around the 1800's, chiefs began to wear feathered headdress.
Faces and arms were painted with bright colors: different patterns for war paint and festive decoration.
Some men wore elaborate tribal tattoos.
(Redish and Lewis)
Cline, Duane A. Breechcloth and Leggings Drawing. Digital image. The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony: 1620. Ancestry.com, 2001. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mosmd/indianmensclothing.htm>.
Shoshone Tribe:
Women wore long deerskin dresses with wide sleeves.
Men wore breechcloths and leggins, and buckskin shirts
The women's dresses and mens shirts were often decorated with porcupine quills and bead work.
Some Shoshones wore facial tattoos and face paint for special occasions. Different patterns are used for different occasions.
Stamm, Henry E., IV. Shoshone Beaded Dress 4. N.d. Photograph. A Gallery of Shoshone-Bannock Beadwork. Shoshone Art. Chief Washakie Foundation. Web. <http://www.windriverhistory.org/exhibits/ShoshoneArt/beadwork/index.html>.
Cherokee Tribe:
Drums, gourd rattles, and turtle shell rattles are used in dancing festivals
Sacred fires, containing 7 different types of wood to represent 7 different clans, were lit before the ceremonies begin.
Positive attitudes are considered to be more important than rituals during ceremonies.
Great New Moon Ceremony: First New Moon of Autumn
Propitiation of Cementation Ceremony: 10 days after
Green Corn and Ripe Corn Ceremonies
Role of Leaders
There was not much hierarchy in Native American tribes
Every Native American tribe had a series of leaders who lead for different purposes (in some case the leaders were elected, in other cases their role was inherited)
Most communities were egalitarian
Many different types of leaders
Hunt leader
War leader
Ceremonial leader
Religion leader
Leaders
The Shaman
The Shaman was a religious leader.
Religion was important to the Native Americans because they were spiritually connected to the world around them.
Share land as a community
Living in harmony with nature
Had many powers that the community believed he had
Most important person in the community
The Chief
It was hard to recognize the chief in a native american tribe
clothing, home, money
expected to be strong communicators
expected to house and feed visitors
passed down through matrilineal descent
Iroquois Tribe:
The ceremonies were primarily concerned with farming, curing illness, and thanksgiving.
Mid-Winter/New Year's
A celebration of new beginnings
Nine day celebration
The ceremony includes speeches by the keepers of the faith, tobacco offerings, and prayer, and a white dog sacrifice which considered a symbol of purifying the entire comunity.
Geography
- Native Americans migrated their societies to places that were rich in natural resources
- They located near rivers and oceans and made sure that the soil was rich
- They used innovative tools to hunt and collect the animals in their geographical region
-The Yurok and Hupa set up fish traps along gushing mountain streams

Northwest Coast
- Waterways and dense forests supplied surpluses of food and supplies
- Fish, game, berries, and wood
-These rich supplies allowed Native Americans in this region to sustain large communities year round

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California
- California is a region of diverse topography
- Valleys and Plateaus
- Long Coastline
-Provided a large supply of fish
- Northwestern rain forest
- Southern desert with palm-shaded springs
-The Yurok and Hupa set up fish traps along gushing mountain streams
-The Kashaya Pomo lived in marshlands along the coast
-They hunted waterfowl with slingshots and nets

Southwest
- The dry Southwest was one of the more difficult places for Native Americans to survive
-Cliffs
- The Pueblo and Pima tribes lived in the Southwest
- The Pueblo and Hopi, moved away by 1300
- The Acoma continued to live near the cliffs, collected rainwater and carefully rationed it out to fields and kitchens
- People of this region lived in multistory houses made of adobe

Eastern Woodlands
The mountains and deserts of the Eastern Woodlands was the home of the Iriquois
- Fish filled the lakes year-round
- Because of the great amount of trees, they developed wood working tools
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