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Nature vs. Nurture

An Investigation
by

Mel Sheena

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Nature vs. Nurture

Nature vs. Nurture:
How do nature and nurture
only have language-processing neurons on the right side of the brain
->
worse speaking and writing skills
affect gender-specific traits?
Prefrontal Cortex -"CEO of the Brain"
- makes decisions and inhibits rash behavior
- larger and earlier mature in women
-> more complex
-
patience, "decision and problem solver"
Hippocampus
- turns short-term into long-term memories
- larger in women
->
more detailed memory of events
Amygdala
- strong emotions (anger and fear)
- smaller in women
->
less likely to involve in risks and fights


Anterior Cingulate Cortex - gut feelings?
- conflict monitoring, error detection, motivation etc.
- bigger in women
- stress and mood center
->
worrying and anxiety
male brains generally 8-11% larger in size -> consistent with weight and height
average IQ scores are the same for both men and women
- no difference so far
11 - 17 Weeks
- first structural differences
At birth
- fully developed
- clear distinction
External Genetalia
- no difference so far
11 - 17 weeks
- first structural differences
At Birth
- fully developed
- clear distinction
The Female Brain
-Brizendine
One male gamete and one female gamete fuse together
Zygote is formed
Sex chromosome from father determines gender
Females: homogametic sex (XX)
Males: heterogametic sex (XY)
TESTOSTERONE
DHT
Dihydrotestosterone
Sex steroid
Androgen hormone
The external genetalia, under the influence of DHT, develops in the male direction
Female external genetalia develops in the absence of DHT
ESTROGEN
Steroid hormone
Important for both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles
Mainly female sex hormone
Enzyme aromatase converts testosterone into estrogen
Nature (Boys in the womb)
In the womb boys produce as much testosterone as a 25 year old
Testosterone shapes the developing brain
Nature (Girls in the Womb)
Make testosterone but not nearly as much as boys
Produce estrogen
Girls have brains that boys would have if theirs wouldn't be changed by testosterone
Many female brains have more neurons in certain areas than male brains due to estrogen
Steroid hormone
Secreted mainly in testicles of males and ovaries of females and adrenal glands
Key role in development of testis and prostate
General Information
regulates space perception is larger in men -> better spatial reasoning
testosterone plays a role too
responsible for sexual and social behaviour and strong emotions (fear and aggression)
larger in men ->
respond physically and more aggressively
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
makes decision and inhibits rash behaviour
smaller in men
-> enraged more quickly, act hastily
differences between girls and boys
->
boys' brains finish puberty 1-2 years later
stress
epinephrine or cortisol released
-> fight or flight
testosterone released
-> stimulates fear and aggression
right side of the amgydala (action and the external environment) activated
-> men respond with physical violence when attacked
men have approximately 6,5 times more grey matter in the brain
full of active neurons
think primarily with this
Insula Cortex
- The Processor
- subjective emotional experience, consciousness
- larger and more active
->
nonverbal clues, empathy and intuition

- language processing neurons on both sides of the brain
- think primarily with white matter, which consists of connections
->
multi-tasking, language and verbal skills
limbic cortex is larger
->
expression of feelings
+ depression
stress
oxytocin enhances connection and caring
-> childbirth
with female estrogen
-> prepare the body for
"tend-and-befriend"
Nurture


Berenbaum once said: “Biology is not destiny”
How does Nurture influence differences?
Comparison of stereotypical male and female









External Genetalia
Society adapted:Stereotypical male and female formed
Men: strongertougher, more ambitious
Women: not as strong,sensitive
Behaviour influenced by:
Parenting
Observations
People’s expectations
Media/Industries

Society
General Information
Grey Matter
The Parietal Cortex
Mixture of both nature and nurture
Brain is plastic
Biology creates a predisposition to certain gender-specific things
Only slight differences between boys‘ and girls‘ brains
Nurture strengthens or weakens the predispositions
Language Skills
Conclusion
Maturation Rate


Learning through observing
People look at behaviour and behave similarly
Different behaviour beween girls and boys

Contributes to child’s later behaviour and personality
Girls/boys treated differently by parents (conscious/unconsciously)
Fathers treat girls with more warmth
Mothers less confident in parenting boys
Girls rooms/clothes etc. different to boys rooms/clothes etc.
Different genders forced into different roles
Parenting
Observations:

People expect others to act according to their gender
Example: People expect boys to perform better at maths
Different work expectations
Expectations influence the way People treat others


A lot of differences based on nurture
Example: Boys like blue and girls like pink was only a marketing strategy

People’s Expectations
Media/Industries
Prefrontal Cortex
Amygdala
"The CEO of the Brain"




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