Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Taxonomy of Marine Species

No description
by

Charleen O'Brien

on 30 April 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Taxonomy of Marine Species

Taxonomy of Marine Species
Emily Gotschalk, Charleen O'Brien, & Jillian Swinford
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
MONERA
Cyanobacteria
Trichodesmium
Unicellular
Some create coloines (ex. Lyngbya)
Longevity: more than 3 billion years
Size: <5 microns (pico- or ultraplankton)
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a
Carotenes
Phycobilins
Reproduction: simple cell fission
Distribution: Benthic
Habitiat: Coastal Primary Production
Example: blue green algae (pictured)
Does not have heterocyst
Diurnal cycle
Nitrogen fixation
Distribution: tropics
Floats at surface
Most important primary producer in tropical North America
PROTISTA
PLANTAE
ANIMALIA
FUNGI
Chrysophyta
Size: 5 microns to 1 milimeter
Structure
Silica skeleton
Some have flagella
Distribution: planktonic & benthic
Chrysophyceae
Size: 5- 20 microns (nanoplankton)
Coccolithophores
Distinguishing structure
Plates
Protect from UV light
Helps channel light into pigments - increase effect of photosynthesis
Distribution: warm & temperate seas
Silicoflagellates
Structure
Internal Skeleton
Flagella
Bacillariophyceae
Size: 15- 500 microns
Distribution: planktonic or benthic
Habitat: temperate seas
Structure: Frustule
Made of pectin & silica
Epitheca (outer)
Hypotheca (inner)
Reproduction
Primarily cell fission
Sexual reproduction in auxospore
Diatoms
Structure
Centric vs. pennate
Areolus
Strong structural stability
Exchange of nutrients, waste, & water
Photosynthesis
Dinophyta
(Dinoflagellates)
Size: 25- 100 microns
Structure
Shapes vary
Cellulose with porous plates
2 flagella
Distribution: planktonic
Habitat: primarily warm waters
Auto- vs. Mixo- vs. Heterotrophic
Reproduction: asexual as well as meiosis
Bioluminescence
Toxins
Some symbiotic relationships
Zooxanthellae in corals
Seaweed
Phaeophyta
(Brown)
Rhodophyta
(Red)
Chlorophyta
(Green)
Anthophyta
Kelp
Multicellular
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a, c
Xanthophylls
Carotenes
Storage products: laminarin
Habitat: benthic
Distribution
Temperate and cold regions
Tolerant of heavy wave action
Uni- & multicellular
Structure: no flagellate stages
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a
Carotenes
Phycobilins
Reflects red light & absorbs blue
Storage products: starch & others
Habitat: benthic
Distribution: worldwide
Reproduction
Additional generation stage- Caproporophyte
Important food source (agar) in Asia
Uni- & multicellular
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a, b
Carotenes
Storage products: starch
Habitat: mostly benthic
Distribution
Mostly freshwater
Some in Hawaii
Most diverse group of algae
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/virtual-wonders/images/3317 6_cocco_ehux_med.jpg
http:exc.images-amazon . com/images/I/31RjLOaWvv . jpg
http :// i.telegraph. co. uk/multimedia/archive/01876/lips_1876163i. jpg
http :// 4.bp.blogspot. com/_C97NrIblNPQ/TTkMfrQV_fl/ AAAAAAAAB3g/ E0PLJA4z4dU/ s1600/ diatom- paint- 540x540 .jpg
http ://media-cache- ec0. pinning .com /736x/5c/c2/c7/5cc2c77f704cad 364853d8cc3243037c .jpg
http :// cache2.artprintimages.com/p/LRG/38/3813/COPIF00Z/art-print/joe -scott- pyrodinium-a-bioluminescent-dinoflagellate. jpg
http: //www. waterboards.ca. gov/water_issues/programs/bluegreen_ algae/docs/cyanobacteria_ microscope_big. jpg
http :// www. rcec.sinica.edu.tw/~tyho/lab/photo_ algae .htm
Macroscopic
Non-motile
Autotrophic
Reproduction: gametophytes <-> sporophytes
Structure: cellulose cell wall

(Flowering)
Terrestrial origin
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a, b
Carotenes
Structure: all conduct water & nutrients
Leaves, Stems, & Roots
Emerged
Submerged
Rhizomes: anchor, stabilize sediment, & gas exchange
Habitat: subtidal, soft bottom shorelines; calm waters
Reproduction
Vegetative via rhizomes
Sexually via underwater pollination
Role
Primary producer
Food source for herbivores (ex. Manatees)
Traps sediment & a part of detritus food web
Thalassia
(Turtle grass)
Habitat: Muddy bottom
Distribution: East & West coasts of North America
Reproduction
Pollen is released with sticky 'slime'
Attaches to the 'slime' (different composition) on stigma
Chemical reaction occurs binding them together
Zostera
(Eel grass)
Distribution: Gulf of Mexico
Reproduction
Creates large pollen grains (3 millimeters) that is more likely to attach to stigma
Once fertilized, seed is dropped into the mud right next to the parent plant
Role
Primary producer
Traps sediment
A part of detritus production
Salt Marshes
Reproduction
Rhizomes (asexual)
Sexual
Habitat
Partially submerged
Intertidal
Low wave action
Distribution: colder regions
Biggest challenge: salt
Ex. Spartina alternaflora (typical marsh grass)- excrete salt through leaves
Ex. Juncus poemercanius (black needlerush)- secretes salt to tip (which then die)
Mangroves
Reproduction: seed germination
Flowering plant drops seed into water
Floating seed drifts into shallow area
Establishes roots in sediment
Habitat: muddy bottoms
Distribution: tropical regions
Macroalgae
Structure
Blades- symmetrical with no viens
Stipes- connect blade to holdfast
Holdfast- comparable to root system
Some are pneumatocycts
Filled with nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide= allows plant to float
Keep the green part of the plant in the photic zone
Vary in size
Do not flower
No true leaves, roots, or seeds
Photosynthetic pigments
Common names often motivated by colors from pigments
All have chlorophyll a
Reproduction
Asexual-> vegetative
Sexual -> complex
Variation of alternating sporophyte & gametophyte
Growth: mitotic division or Meristematic tissue
Habitat
Lives in harder substrate than Anthophyta
Wave tolerant
http: // manateeandclimatechange. blogspot. come/ /effects-of-seagrass-on-range-shifts_1 . html
http :// www. doe. ky/information/books/natural-resources-study- seagrasses/
http: // apofl .com/plants/contract- growing/ page/ 19
http :// store. speedtree .com/product/red-mangrove-v6/
http: //fineartamerica. com/featured/seaweed-pressing- brown-algae- lisa-randlette.html
http :// en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Chloroplast
http ://museumgreenhands. wordpress. com/2010/08/03/seaweed-pressing/
Phytoplankton
Unicellular
Photosynthetic pigments
Chlorophyll a, c
Carotene
Xanthophyll
Reproduction: asexual
Protozoa
Unicellular
Non-photosynthetic
Heterotrophs
No cell wall
Not monophyletic
Reproduction: predominately asexual
Sarcomastigophora
Foraminiferans
Radiolarians
Cytoplasmic filaments (pseudopodia)
Locomotion
Collecting Food
Attaching to other organisms
50% of protozoa
Test (shell) structure: calcium carbonate
Deep sea sediment
Distribution: benthic, some planktonic
Habitat: Mostly marine
Test (shell) structure: silica
Distribution
Planktonic
Habitat
All marine
All depths and latitudes
Ciliophora
Structure: long line of cilia
Power stroke of cilia moves in parallel with the surface of the organism
Distribution
Planktonic, benthic, and some parasitic
Tintinnids
Distribution: planktonic
Can produce shell but like stealing plate/shells of cocolithophores
Labyrinthomorpha
Colony formation
Structure: slime network
Glides movement
No cilia, flagella, or pseudopodia
Distribution: mostly marine
Multicellular
Heterotrophs & primary decomposers
Decompose cellulose and ligand
Some are parasitic
Structure
Cell wall
Saprobes: secretion of digestive enzymes that breaks down dead material, making nutrient more available for absorption
Hyphae: tubular filament that makes up the body's mycelium
Creates larger surface area for greater absorption

Lichen
Fungus
+
Cyanobacteria or Green algae
Fungus (helps algae from drying out)
+
Marine algae
Mycophycobiosis
Micorhizas
Fungus (acts as roots)
+
Plant (provides sugar)
Multicellular
Contractile muscles
Neurons
Dependence on sexual reproduction
Energy cost: to maintain an opposite sex & to make gametes
External & internal fertilization
Internal has a higher probability of success
Male vs. Female vs. Hermaphrodite

Porifera (Sponges)
Structure
Asymmetrical
Loose aggregate of cells: organized into multicellular organisms
Specialization of cells
Cell regeneration: ability create new sponge from one cell
Skeleton
Spongin (bath sponges): soft, basically protein
Spicules: tougher, made of calcium carbonate (bony) or silica (glass)
Reproduction
Asexual: budding
Sexual: hermaphrodites
True Tissues v. No True Tissues
Radial Symmetry
v.
Bilateral Symmetry

Radial Symmetry
Cnidaria
Who?
Jellyfish
Sea anemones
Corals
Hydroids
Radial symmetry
Simple Nerve Net
Diploblastic: two germ layers filled with mesoglea
Gastrovascular cavity
Blind digestive tract
Cnidocysts: specialized cells used for reproduction, feeding, & defense -> nematocysts
Life cycle -> Medusa v. Polyp
Hydrozoa
Includes:
Hydroids: colonial organisms
Siphonophores: colonial but with specialized individuals
example: Portuegese Man of War
Both medusa and polyp forms (equally dominant)
Class Scyphozoa
Includes jellyfish
Medusa dominated
Polyp form either reduced or absent
Class Anthozoa
Ctenophora
Distribution
All marine
Pelagic: mostly planktonic; small & weigh nothing
Widespread: temperature & salinity tolerant; isoosmotic
Structure
Radial symmetry
Gelatinous structure
Uses ctenes (rows of cilia) for locomotion
Feeding: colloblasts (sticky cells)
Incomplete digestive tract; mouth -> anal pores
Bioluminescence
Reproduction: hermaphrodites with external fertilization
Bilateral Symmetry
Only one plane of symmetry with mirror images
Have anterior, posterior, dorsal, & ventral sections of body
Development paved the way for anterior cephalization

Internal Body Cavity Development
Acoelomates
Lacking body cavity
Absent/open circulatory system
Pseudocoelomates
Fluid-filled cavity, only lined on outer side
Absent/open circulatory system
Coelomate
True internal body cavity- separates digestive tract from body wall
Fluids: promotes circulation of oxygen, waste, nutrients
Allows for:
Specialization of digestive tract
Larger gonads- organisms able to produce more eggs/sperm
Body wall muscle independence
Platyhelminthes
Flatworms
Hermaphroditic -> penis fencing
Mostly benthic, but some are free living
Example: Turbellarians
Blind digestive tract
Gnathostomulida
Less than 1mm in length
"gnatho" = jaw
Blind digestive tract
Nemertea
Ribbon worms
Proboscis: specialized organ for capturing prey & defense
Complete digestive system
Mouth and anus but no coelem
Gastrotricha
Very small
Complete digestive system
Mouth & anus
Kinorhyncha
Spiny headed worms
Complete digestive system
Mouth & anus
Entoprocta
Entoprocta = "inner anus"
Inside tentacles
Goblet worms
Complete digestive system
Mouth & anus
Nematoda
Roundworms (segmented)
Distribution: everywhere
Parasitic and free-living
Example: marine
Secondary pseudocoelum
Slightly more complicated than complete digestive tract
Cuticle: excreted by epidermis
Serves as sensory array
Hydrostatic skeleton -> molt
Specialized pharynx for uptaking food
Cryptobiosis: suspend life when conditions unfavorable
Protostomes
Cleavage: Spiral
Blastomeres: cells in prebastula style
Fate: predetermined
Blastopore: where cell folds in
Becomes mouth
Deuterostomes
Cleavage: radial
Blastomeres: closer in size
Fate: undetermined
Blastopore: becomes anus
Includes corals, anemones, and sea fans
Corals and sea anemones are colonial
Sea fans are independent individuals
Lophophores
Ectoprocta
Phoronida
Brachiopoda
Mollusca
Amphinura
Gastropoda
Scaphopoda
Bivalva
Cephalopoda
Squids
Octopus
Spinicula
Echurida
Annelida
Arthropoda
Insecta
Merostomata
Pycnogonida
Crustacea
Copepods
Invertebrates
Chordata
Bilateral symmetry
2 cell layers
True coelom and U shaped gut
Eat using crown of cillia
Colonial Bryozoans
"Outside" anus
Sexual & asexual reproduction, some brood offspring
Horseshoe Worms
Build Tubes in Substrate
Feed on plankton
Rudimentary circulatory system
"Lamp-Shells
Been around for 3.5 billion years
Have muscular stock
Benthic
Can brood young
Rudimentary nervous system
2nd greatest diversity in Animalia
Structure: most have hard shell, mantle, muscular foot or tentacles, cephalization
Systems: nervous system, heart and rudimentary circulatory system, have organs in mantle to extract oxygen
Chitons
8 chitonous plates and mantle on bottom
Radula mouth part
Exclusively marine benthic
Snails, slugs, limpets, abalones, nudibranchs, chonchs
Single shell or no shell
Have radula and siphon
Tusk shells
Both ends open
Tentacles: feeding
Live in substrate (infauna)
Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish
Chitinous beak: most are predators
Highly evolved eye and sensory system
Tentacles with suckers
Produce ink in defense
Buoyancy
Nautilus: have gas filled shell
Squid: retain ammonium ions
Cuttlefish: have air filled pockets in cuttlebone
Octopus: is benthic, doesn't need to regulate buoyancy
8 arms, 2 tentacles
Distribution: pelagic
Live solitary or in schools
2 fins for swimming (cirrata)
Remaining internal shell (pen)
Eat fish and shrimp
8 tentacles
No shell
Benthic and mostly solitary
Eat benthic crustaceans
Peanut worms
Intertidal or abyssal benthic
2 cm--50 cm
Cilliated tentacles around mouth for eating
Have proboscis
Burrow into a U- shaped burrow
Catch food on a mucus and eat the mucus
Segmented worms
Metameres: repeated body parts
Polychaeta
Feed via sediment, filter feeders, or are predatory
Can move side to side via segments
2/3 of all known animals
Segmented
Exoskeleton made of chitin
Ecdysis: molting for growth
Open circulatory system & blood in sinuses
Have compound eye
Water striders and sand & kelp fleas
Most "marine" species are not exclusively marine
Horseshoe crabs
All exclusively marine
Most closely related to spiders
Sea spiders
Intertidal species small
Deep sea species can get up to 60 cm
Crabs, lobsters, shrimp, barnacles, copepods, isopods, amphipods
2 pairs of antennae
Larval stage called "nauplii"
Can be filter feeders, ominivores, or herbivores
Habitats: benthic, zooplankton, free swimming nekton
Decapods: include crabs and lobsters
Zooplankton
Herbivores and omnivores
Connect primary trophic levels to higher trophic levels
Consumed by fish and whales
Hemichordata
Chaetognatha
Echinodermata
"Spiny skinned"
Majority are benthic; location: intertidal & deep sea
Exclusively marine
Radial symmetry second to bilateral symmetry
Water vascular system: used for respiration, excretion, sensory, locomotion
Ability to regenerate
Diffuse nerve net (instead of excretory organ)
Class Echinoidea
Sea urchins, sand dollars, heart urchins
Herbivores or deposit feeders
Class Asteroida
Sea Stars
Canivores
Class Crinoida
Feather stars and sea lillies
Planktonic
Detritus feeders
Class Holothuroidea
Sea cucumbers
Decreased skeletal system
Deposit feeders, detritus, & few plankton
Class Ophiuroidea
Brittle stars
Class Concentricyloidea
Sea Daisies
Less than 1,000 meters
Acorn worms
Anterior probosis
Deposit feeders
Up to 50cm long
Pharyngeal gill slits, nerve cord, & coelem
Arrow worms
Less than 3cm in length
Predator of other zooplankton (copepods)
Hermaphrodites
Chemical sensitivity -> can detect different water conditions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathocyroe_fosteri
http://hideousseacreatures.tumblr.com/post/62068992442/portuguese-man-owar
http://www.ghank.com/jellyfish-photos/
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/kingdom-animalia/deck/1792500
http://pixabay.com/en/sea-anemone-anemone-water-sea-4907/
http://biobiobiobioparry.blogspot.com/
http://eol.org/pages/8747/overview
http://www.savalli.us/BIO385/Diversity/08.Nemertea.html
: http://increasingdisorder.wordpress.com/2013/04/23/spotlight-on-invertebrate-phylum-gastrotricha-2/
http://daggerwrist.tumblr.com/page/213
http://theconversation.com/animals-in-research-c-elegans-roundworm-14163
http://eol.org/pages/2060/overview
http://www.diverkevin.com/keyword/090228/782213705_jvrhpMq#!i=782213705&k=jvrhpMq
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/lab-practical-2/deck/8806030
http://www.notcot.com/images/2008/07/
Muscles, clams, oysters, scallops
Gills for gas exchange and food storage
Have siphon
Most are benthic, but scallops are free swimming
Reproduction: gonochronistic or hermaphroditic
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oyster
http://wallpapershd.org/animals/underwater-animals/calamari-underwater-hd-wallpaper/
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/inverts/deck/5675361
http://www.goldridge08.com/anking/mollusk.htm
http://www.shells-of-aquarius.com/tusk-shells.html
http://www.conchology.be/?t=68&u=545639&g=88ca5e47a5964d5212af27851d545b8a&q=d30e689e5f9b2679b1ea72d61e5a8491
http://www.eplantscience.com/index/general_zoology
http://rhamphotheca.tumblr.com/post/16534164333/marine-worms-peanut-worms-phylum-sipuncula
http://www.earthlife.net/inverts/images/others/echiura
http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/ne0000/6968767/glowing_worms
http://www.thenewmagazine.com/undersea-creatures-by-alexander-semenov/
http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/news_uploads/halobates-5b
http://horseshoe-crabs.com/horseshoe-crab-t-shirt/horseshoe-crab-shells-molts-for-sale/
http://www.antarctica.gov.au/science/cool-science/2010/creatures-from-the-bottom-of-the-ocean-on-display-for-national-science-week
http://piazampen.blogspot.com/2012_03_22_archive.html
http://www.warrenphotographic.co.uk/16369-marine-planktonic-copepod
Vertebrata
Urochordata
Cephalochordata
http://www.dreamstime.com/Galazul_portfolio_pg1
http://www.flickriver.com/photos/kqedquest/512744258/
http://www.truffle-and-truffe.com/origine-uk.htm
http://www.ird.fr/toute-l-actualite/science-en-direct/campagne-biopapua/biopapua-premieres-recoltes-a-la-sortie-de-lae
http://facstaff.uwa.edu/jmccall/by122/Protista_files/slide0107
http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/42-29234026/tintinnid-ciliate-protozoan-favella-ehrenbergii-with-a
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread863028/pg1
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/onlinebio/BioBookDiversity_3.html
: http://www.natgeocreative.com/photography/1047841
http://192.171.193.133/detail.php?sp=CHAETOGNATHA
http://www.warrenphotographic.co.uk/04069-sea-urchin
http://www.colourbox.com/image/with-sea-star-decoration-on-white-background-image-2890994
http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-25724311/stock-photo-panamic-cushion-sea-star-pentaceraster-cumingi-isolated-over-white-background.html

http://www.mesa.edu.au/echinoderms/gallery.asp
http://intrestinganimalfacts.blogspot.com/2010/03/sea-creatures-part-i.html
http://www.natgeocreative.com/photography/1382271
http://en.paperblog.com/the-amazing-diversity-of-animal-life-655065/
http://www.uwlax.edu/biology/Zoo-Lab/Lab-09/lancelets.htm
http://scienceblogs.com/deepseanews/2007/08/10/sea-squirts-just-want-to-have/
Dorsal hollow nerve cord of cartilage
Pharyngeal gill slits
Complete digestive tract
Postanal tail
Tunicates
Sea squirts
Salps
Larvaceans
Distribution: mostly sessile but some pelagic
Lancelet
Agnatha
Jawless
Lack
Pair fins
Scales
Biting mouth
Vertebra
Cartilaginous notocord
Tetrapods
Hagfish
Lamprey
Defense: Produce slime
Isotonic
Degenerate eyes
Distribution: benthic
Scavengers
Reproduction: eggs hatch into miniature adults
Well-developed eyes
Lateral line
Parasitic
Anticoagulate secretion
Metamorph
Anadramous
Chonrichthyes
Structure
Cartilage
Paired fines
Biting jaw with teeth
Size: <20 cm to 15 mm
Sensory organs
Eyes: sight/vision
Inner ear, lateral line &, hair: touch, pain, heat
Chemoreception: smell & taste
Electroreception: ampullae or lorenzini- sense electrical fields & temperature
Fertilization: internal
Oviparous: eggs
Oviviparous: eggs with live birth
Habitat: Mostly marine
Chimeras
Elasmobranchs
Structure
Skin: smooth, scaleless
1 Gill slit
Fused Jaw
Clasper in head region
Teeth: crushing molars
Habitat: benthic
Reproduction: internal/oviparous
Food: mollusks & crustaceans
Structure
Placoid scales
5-7 pairs of gill slits
Layers of teeth
Counter-shading
Habitat: pelagic and benthic
Reproduction: internal
Sharks
Rays/Skates
Shape: tubular/ streamline
Gill slits: lateral
Caudal fin: heterocercal tail
Lift & movement
caudal fin is predominate source
Pectorals provide lift
Shape: dorsal-ventrally flattened
Gill slits: ventral
Caudal fin: reduced
Lift & movement: pectoral fins
Rays
Structure
Pelvic fin: 1 lobe
Tail: stinging spine
Reduced or no dorsal fin on caudal fin
Reproduction: viviparous (live birth)
Skates
Structure
Pelvic fin: 2 lobe
2 small dorsal fins
Tiny caudal fin
Reproduction: oviparous
'Mermaid's purse'
Osteichthyes
Advantage of bone:
Stronger and lighter than cartilage
Leads to more diversity in body plan
Two Subclasses
Sarcopterugii
Anctinopterygii
Sarcopterygii
Lobed-finned fishes
One extant marine member: Coelacanth
Lives in rocky caves below 100m
Found in Indian Ocean
Freshwater lungfish
Possible ancestor to terrestrial tetrapods
Actinopterygii
Ray-finned fish (fins supported by bony spines)
Originated in freshwater
Upper jaw includes two bones: maxilla and premaxilla
Over 13,000 species
Three major groups: Chondrostie, Holostei, and Teleost
Chondrostie
Sturgeons and paddlefish
Lack scales
Have secondary cartilage
Heterocercal tail
Rostum
Gars and Bowfins
Mainly freshwater
Simple swim bladders
Teleost
Sixty percent are marine
Skeleton made of bone
Scales
Osmoregulation -> hypoosmotic to seawater
Huge diversity of body plan
Swim bladder -> some have lost it
Evolutionary advantage: more fin diversity & fins can better control movement
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia
http://animalworld.tumblr.com/post/2345612530/marinebiology-the-hagfish-hagfish-they-are
Holostei
http://www.qrbiz.com/buy_giant-bluefin-tuna-fishing
http://www.dooyoo.co.uk/pets-and-animals/seahorse/
http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/bowfin.html
http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/fishing/sturgeon/
http://scienceblogs.com/lifelines/2014/01/03/more-throughts-on-dolphins-and-puffer-fish/
http://www.sciencebuzz.org/buzz_tags/coelacanth
http://blog.slidemoor.com/gag-black-or-goliath-grouper/
http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/recreation/fishing/bizarre-antarctica-sea-creatures-47122501#slide-1
http://www.arkive.org/giant-manta-ray/manta-birostris/image-G141687.html
http://www.glogster.com/nad4010/egalia-s-daughters/g-6lqh5r6duo84j9ifmc40ia0
http://daggerwrist.tumblr.com/post/42834910248/obscurezoology-most-of-the-creatures-of-the
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamprey
Marine Fishes
Amphibian
Environmental pressure: osmotic -> dehydration
Solution: permeable skim
Fejervarya cancrivora
Crab-eating frog
Salt adaptations
Tadpole: salt-excretory gills
Adult: stores high concentration of urea
Distribution: Southeast Asia
Habitat: mangroves
Sea Turtles
Crocodiles
Sea Snakes
Marine Iguana
Distribution due to thermal intolerance
Higher latitude= warm currents
Tropical or subtropical
Reproduction: oviparous
Salt tolerance
Glands above eye or nostril
Tongue
Kidneys
HerbivoreS
Sea lettuce & macroalgae
Structure
Tail: aid in swimming
Claws: strong-> hold on for feeding
Black color: helps absorb heat
Distribution: Galapagos
Carnivores
Salt adaptations
Glands -> tongue
Kidney -> uric acid
American Crocodile
Saltwater Crocodile
Lighter color
Distribution: Florida, Caribbean, & northern South America
Habitat: coastal lagoons & mangroves
Largest of crocodiles
Opportunistic feeders
Greater salt tolerance
Distribution: Indo-Australia & Asia
Structure
Very small fangs
Venomous
Reduced or absent scales
Oxygen uptake through skin
Flattened tail
1 right lung
Shy, not aggressive
Salt adaptations: tongue & kidney
Distribution:
Indo-Pacific: 60+ species
Eastern tropical Pacific: 1
Laticaudids
Lay eggs above tide line
Hydrophiid
Oviviparous
Retain eggs
Live birth
Carnivores
Exceptions: green & black sea turtles
Sex determination: temperature dependent
Warm= females
Cold= males
Nesting location
Terrestrial, tropical or subtropical, & above high tide line
Navigation Cues:
Most migrate
Influenced by location of sun
Chelonidae
Shelled
Distribution: Tropical or subtropical
Green
Structure: Serrated Beak
Habits: Sunbathe
Maturity: 25 years
Black
Carnivores
Herbivores
Structure: smaller head
Habits: sunbathe
Loggerhead
Structure
Large
Powerful jaw
Food: mollusk, crabs, & fish
Maturity: 10-30 years
Pressures
Trawling
Pollution
Development in nesting areas
Kemps &
Olive Ridleys
Smallest
Solitary
Food: crabs
Olive Ridleys
Abundant
Kemps
Most endangered
1000 females
Arribada: large groups that come to shore all at the same time
Indo-Pacific Flatback
Distribution: Australia
Tend to stay close to land
Food: sea cucumber
Eggs: fewer clutch but larger size
Hawksbill
Food: sponges
Prefer siliceous spines
Maturity: 20-40 years
Prized for shells
Dermochelyidae
Leatherback Sea Turtle
Bone/shell embedded in dermis
Food: like gelatinous
Maturity: 5-21 years
Distribution: oceanic -> Alaska
Heat retention
Dermis: thick & oily
Behavioral thermoregulation
Black color
Sunbathe
Flipper: countercurrent exchange
Giganthothery: lose heat more slowly
Homeotherms: greater distribution range
Diversity in flight ability
Adaptations
Feathers: traps air
Trunk: muscles for propulsion
Feet: heat=countercurrent exchange
Streamlined: minimize heat loss during movement
Hollow bones: flight
Salt tolerance: water conservation
Salt glands above eyes or nostrils
Kidneys retain uric acid
Reproduction: Oviparous
Amniotic eggs
Differences from terrestrial birds
Longer: maturity, incubation time, time to fledge, & life span
Smaller: clutch size
Sphenisciforms
Penguins
Structure
Streamlined
Short & stout feathers
Eyes adapt for underwater
Lost ability to fly
Good at holding breath
Distribution: Southern Hemisphere
Procellariiformes
Albatrosses, Petrels, Shearwaters, & Fulmars
Structure: huge wing span -> glide
Energy conservation
Lower body temperature
Without food: increase oil & fat storage
Humans exploit food sources
Pelecaniformes
Pelicans, boobies, & cormorants
Plunge divers
Proficient underwater swimmers -> feeding
Adapted wings
Charadriiformes
Gulls, puffins, & sandpipers
http://www.fobi.web.id/key/Ady+Kristanto?g2_itemId=12200
http://www.arkive.org/banded-sea-krait/laticauda-colubrina/image-G125624.html
http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-image-crocodile-white-background-open-mouth-image33627746
http://www.seaturtles.org/gallery.php?gal=9&qty=&all=1&offset
http://fineartamerica.com/art/all/sea+turtles+endangered/canvas+prints
http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/onlinelearningcenter/species/whale_shark
General characteristics:
Mammory glands
Hair/fur
Warm-blooded (homeotherm)
Vivoparity: live birth; development includes uterine connection
Specialized teeth
Separation of openings (no cloaca)
Carnivora
Polar Bears
Primary foods: ice seals, walruses, birds, baluga whales
Fast when on land
Breed only every 3-4 years
Induced ovulators
Delayed implantation
Marine Otters
Food: crustaceans, molluscs, fish
Distribution: Chile and Peru
Pinnepeds
Eared seals: sea lions & fur seals, walruses, and true seals
Otariidae
Eared seals
Sea Lions and Fur Seals
Structure
Pinnae: outer ear
Scrotal testes
Unfused hind limbs
Four teats
Reproduction
Only birth one pup
Polygynous
Odobinidae
Walruses
Structure
Rear limb separate
Maintain heat with blubber
No pinnae
Benthic feeder -> use Vibrissae (sensory whiskers)
Distribution : Arctic Ocean
Polygynous and sexual dimorphism
Phocidae
Earless seals (true seals)
Most derived; 19 species
Swimming: more like fish (side to side)
Distribution: varies: tropical locations to on arctic pack or fast ice
Sirenia
Manatees and Dugongs
Herbivores
No pelvic limbs
Manatee: paddle tail
Dugong: horizontal fluke
Tropical and subtropical
Cetacea
Whales, dolphins, & porpoises
Total marine existence
Structure
Lack pelvic appendages
Use blow holes to breathe
Streamlined body shape
Tail flute for propulsion
Distribution: in Pacific Rim
Tails: dorsoventrally flattened
Heat production: thick coats & high metabolism
Polygynous
Sea Cat
Sea Otter
Tropical
Monk seals
Hawaiian: good population
Caribbean: extinct
Mediterranean: serious population decline
Arctic Ice
Mid-latitude
Breed on land
Polygynous
Breed in rookeries
Elephant Seals
Diving: submerged 90% of time
Sexual dimorphism
Mating: female defense polygyny
Reproduction
Seasonal delayed implantation
Double migration
Many monygynous
Little sexual dimorphism
Mating in water
Vocalize
Ringed
Distribution: most abundant in Arctic
Size: Small
Food: small fish & krill
Harp
Hooded
Polygynous
Only nurses young for 4 days
Distribution: Arctic
Population size: similar to Ringed Seals
Crabeater
Specialized teeth for straining
Food: krill
Distribution: Antarctica
Most abundant on pack ice
Weddell
Antarctic
Bottom feeders: fish, cod, & squid
Leopard
Carnivore teeth
Food: crabeater, krill, & birds
Mysticeti
Odonticeti
Balaenopteridae
Eschrichtiidae
Balaenidae
Monodontidae
Beluga
Narwhal
Dolphins
Orcinus Orca
Cachlots
Porpoises
-Roqual Whales
Mouth size is large via groves
- Baleen length: intermediate
- Feeding: engulfment

- Grey whale
- Feeding: suck crustaceans from bottom
- Baleen length: short
- Migration: 18,000 km round trip that takes 2 years

-Feeding: Skimmers right below surface
- Large baleen
- Right whale severely depleted because “right whale to hunt”
o Slower, floated when dead
o Hunted down to 100 animals
- Migration in both hemispheres because there are two diff. populations


- baleen whales
- 2 blow holes
- Feeding
o Skimming: right/bowhead, small plankton
o Engulfing: humpback, roqual whales
o Suction: grey whales and crustaceans
- Reverse sexual dimorphism: females bigger than males
- Social behavior: more solitary than toothed whales unless mating
- Vocalization: lower frequency travels farther, echolocation for larger objects
- Size in general: smaller
o Exception: sperm whales
- Males larger than females
- Feeding: squid, fish, marine mammals
- Social structure: matrilineal pods
- Single blow hole
- Sound: communication close range in pod, echolocation, can stun prey
- Sound production in phonic lips in forehead
o Concave skull directs sound forward
o Focused by lense of fat
- Reflection of sound: travel from organism to object and back
- White, blubber adapted for arctic
- Flexible neck
- Dorsal ridge to break ice
- Canaries of the sea
- Males have extended incisor tooth
o Sensory organ that detects chemical changes in water
- Feeding: dive deep for cod
- Mouth shape: elongated
- Teeth: cone
- Dorsal fin: arch/wave
- Body shape: streamline
- Noise: more vocal
- Social group: larger groups, herds
- Size: larger than porpoises
- Distribution: cosmopolitan
- Pods: matrilineal, each member is direct descendant from oldest female
- Feeding: fish and mammals
o Can be pod specific
o Locals vs. transient
- Mouth shape: no or limited beak
- Teeth: spade
- Dorsal: triangle shaped
- Body shape: portly, stout
- Noise: less vocal
- Social groups: smaller than dolphins
- Size: smaller than dolphins
- Distribution: cosmopolitan
- Pods: matrilineal, male leaves
- Sexual dimorphism: males bigger
- Ecolocation in sperm whale
o Rostrum and skull: large hollow: flaired to reflect stuff
o Spermaceti organ: Oil 20% of whales weight
o Junk: fat underneath spermaceti
o Phonic lips: produce sound
http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/blog/2011/12/02/rosenstiel-has-turtle-power/green-sea-turtle-061022-french-reef-kl-img_4313/
:http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/Plants_Wildlife/herps/Testudines/LoggerheadSeaTurtle.asp
http://junglejenny.org/turtles/
http://seapics.com/gallery/Reptilia/Testudines/Cryptodira/Chelonioidea/Cheloniidae/Kemps-ridley-sea-turtle-search.html
http://www.guyharveymagazine.com/user-gallery/australian-flatback-sea-turtle/australian-flatback-sea-turtle-5
http://www.mydestination.com/hawaii/6110801/hawaii-weather-forecast
http://www.jereva.com/Galapagos/Galapago.htm
http://www.warrenphotographic.co.uk/04572-american-alligator-with-mouth-open
http://www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/origins.htm
http://animals.timduru.org/dirlist/penguin/
http://www.poemslastforever.com/#/shadow-hamilton/4577132425
http://www.educationquizzes.com/specialist/nature/british-birds---miscellaneous-02/
http://www.portlandbirdobs.org.uk/oi_finland_and_norway_250509-060609.htm
http://www.vistaalmar.es/medio-ambiente/68-general.html?start=5
http://www.worldmostamazingthings.com/2012_12_01_archive.html
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bah%C3%ADa_Ensenada_Zaratiegui
http://www.oceanlight.com/log/category/mexico
http://sayaberbagii.blogspot.com/2012/09/inilah-10-hewan-terberat-di-dunia.html
http://www.hergunyenibircanli.comuv.com/index.php/9-uncategorised/22-akdeniz-foku-monachus-monachus
http://kids.mongabay.com/facts/2012/12/09/temperatures-rise-seals-suffer/
http://natgeotv.com.au/natgeosnap/933-baby-weddell-seal.aspx
http://www.digital-images.net/Gallery/Wildlife/Studies/ElephSeals/elephseals.html
http://www.orcraphics.com/index.php/conservation/the-manatee-project/manatee-facts/
: http://www.animalplanet.com/tv-shows/whale-wars/about-whaling/meet-the-humpback-whale.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/picturegalleries/7165175/Great-whale-watching-destinations.html?image=6
http://www.daufuskieislandconservancy.org/index.php?page=right-whales
http://www.myfoxtwincities.com/story/19388565/photos-new-beluga-whale-is-sixth-born-at-shedd-aquarium
http://www.earthtimes.org/environment/ocean/
http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/articles/harbor-porpoise/
Full transcript