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Australia and World War One
Transcript of Australia and World War One
Australia and WWI
World War One meant many things to Australia. It was the last time they fought under the British flag, the start of an Australian/New Zealand mateship that still last to this day and the beginning of the Anzac spirit. Australia fought hard and had some great victories, but suffered some terrible loses all over the course of four years.
Why was Australia Part of WWI
WWI began when the Archduke of the Austria-Hungarian empire, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia were assassinated by a Serbian assassin on the 28th of July 1914. The Austria-Hungary empire told Serbia if they didn't reach their list of demands for killing their next in line for the throne, they would declare war, even though Serbia had no control of the assassin. Serbia agreed to all but one demand, but this wasn't enough for Austro-Hungary, so they declared war on Serbia.
Timeline of Gallipoli-
Conscription was one of the biggest issues during WWI. Fewer and fewer men were volunteering to fight because so many soldiers were dieing in battle. The Prime Minister at the time wanted to legalise conscription to help this problem but there was a large backlash to this idea. A referendum was launched to solve the issue, and both sides launched a campaign to get people to either vote 'Yes' or 'No' to conscription. On of the main ways to get the point across, was through posters.
For over half a decade before WWI, Germans had been flooding to Australia for a new start at life. This meant that by 1914, over 100,000 Australians had German descent.
First landing at the Gallipoli peninsular for the Anzacs. The ships were aiming to land at Gaba Tepe, but due to strong currents and the commanders confusion, landed at Anzac Cover instead. Anzac Cove was inhospitable, with only a short distance from the beach to steep, rocky cliffs.
During the night, the last of the Anzacs were evacuated off Gallipoli. Over the course of two weeks, over 40,000 Anzac soldiers were evacuated of Anzac Cove, without the Turks knowing a thing. Their were zero casualties during the evacuation process.
Gun devices used to trick the Turks
Water would drip into the pot and fire the gun off at different intervals, as if there was someone firing.
Useful during the timeline for the evacuation process. Reliable because it is a '.org' meaning its not for profit, though there is no author for the article.
Photo: Evacuation of Gallipoli, December 1915.
Source: Ferguson Collection, National Library of Australia
April 25th- First Landing of the Anzacs
December 19th- Evacuation
6-10th August- Lone Pine
1st Brigade AIF against the Turks
Australia launched the attack as a diversion so 25,000 British Troops could land at Slava Bay
Began with an Australian attack at 5.30pm August 6th, with the Australian forces taking control of Lone Pine by 6:00pm. The Battle continued until the 10 of August.
Australians lost almost 2,300 soldiers with the Turks losing almost 7,000
Lone Pine was a success for the Anzacs in the sense that the British troops landed at Slava Bay. But due to the high number of causualties on both sides, its not looked back as one.
7th August- The Nek
Just before dawn of the 7th of August, the battle of the Nek took place. It was one of the Anzacs bravest, and most disastrous battles.The Turkish trenches were suppose to be bombard finishing at exactly 4:30am, sending the Turks running. The Anzacs would then run out in four lines of 150 soldiers, attacking the Turks on the blow of a whistle. The times however, were off and the bombs actually finished at 4:23am, giving the Turks time to run back into the trenches and attack the coming Anzacs. By 5:15am, off the 600 Australian's involved, 234 died and 138 were wounded.
Memorial at Anzac Cove dedicated to the Anzacs bravery
March 18th- Anzac Landing Planning
Five days before, General Hamilton was given order from Field Marshal Lord Kitchener to commence military operations if the navel attacks on the Dardanelles failed. On March 18th the last of the British and French Battleships failed to retain the Dardanelles. The officers decided that they couldn't reach the Dardanelles without first sending troops to the Gallipoli peninsula to weaken the Turkish Troops. Planning for the Anzacs to land on Gallipoli was begun.
November 22nd- Evacuation Planning
After survey the situation for three days, Lord Kitchener advised that the troops at Gallipolli should be evacuated. The British government didn't approve this however until December 7th
A lot of the 'Yes' campaign was aimed at the men going to fight, and why they needed they need to vote yes. These posters told the men that if they didn't vote yes, they were letting down their mates who fought, calling them cowards if they didn't. That the Anzacs needed help, reinforcements and legalising conscription was the only way to do it.
The rest of the 'Yes' campaign was aimed at the general public. The posters were made to show that if people didn't vote yes, then Australia was letting down Britain, the 'Mother Country', the men fighting and letting the Germans or Hun win.
Poster used to guilt Australian men into conscription. Showing that the Germans would ridicle the Anzacs, their friends, if the men didn't vote yes for conscription
Badges encouraging people to 'help the boys out front' by sending reinforcements and voting yes.
Popular slogan printed on a badge, showing that voting yes is
a vote to help the Anzacs and Australia
Illustration displaying that if women vote yes,
they will wipe
Australia clean of the 'No' mentality.
A lot of the no to conscription argument was focused towards the women of society, the mothers and wives.
Poster urging Aussies to back the 'Mother Country' by voting yes to conscription
The posters asked them if they want to explain to their children why their dads weren't there,
if they could live with sending their sons to war,
and the posters attempted to frighten, voters
often calling the referendum the 'Death Vote'
Badges were wore to show where peoples support lay.
They were even targeted at men,
saying it was worth more fighting
as a free man as opposed to soldiers fighting because they had to.
When Britain declared war on Germany, many white Australians attempted to 'do their bit' by shunning the German community. That and posters depicting Germans ready to take over Australia led to a hostile feeling towards the minority group.
Anyone who was even remotely descendent from Germans, due to massive rumors and propaganda were subject to public hate campaigns. They were targeted on the streets, in their shops and homes.
Some German Australians changed their names hoping their jobs and lives would be protected
Those who did not follow these protocols, or who were just deemed as suspicious were dealt harsh penalties. In 1915 the first of thousands of Germans were interned into concentration camps around Australia.
People whose family had lived in Australia for three generation were even placed in these camps, held like prisoners of war, treated them as less than human, simply for being of German decent.
The Australian government at the time even past the War Precautions Act in October of 1914, stating that any 'enemy aliens' had to pledge allegiance to Australia and the British empire and check in weekly with authorities about their whereabouts.
Even if they weren't sent to the camps, German Australians lives were changed drastically. Their music was banned, schools and churches were closed and many locations were renamed to sound less German.
Men Who Didn't Go to War
If you were of age, fit and able to go to war, and for whatever reason you choose not to, in Australia during the first half of WWI, you were ridiculed and shunned by almost everyone in the community. Young men walking down the streets would be given white feathers by passing women, as a show of cowardliness for not singing up. People they thought were friends would shun men who choose not to go, and it was almost impossible to find good jobs. If you didn't sign up for the army during WWI, you were shunned out of the community for being their version of a coward.
Germany is closely alined with Austria-Hungary, so it offers it support in way
of a 'blank cheque'. Russia does a
similar thing with Serbia, stating that they would back Serbia if they went to war. Germany declares war on Serbia after Austro-Hungary does, and threatens Russia if it doesn't step
down. France, long time enemies of Germany seizures its opportunity to declare war on it.
Russia, being alined with both Serbia and France, declares war on both the German and Austria-Hungary Empires
Britan because of alliances with both France and Russia, declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary Empires.
With the two main allinaces, Triple Alliance (Green) and the triple Entente (Red), both declaring war, all the countries under their govern
join the war as well. Australia,
being still under Britain rule,
goes into WWI fighting under
the British Flag.
Extremely useful for the timeline, I got majority of my events from it. It is reliable because it is the official Anzac government site for Australian, meaning they have a reputation to uphold. But it could have biased views because its Australian site, talking about an Australian event that involved many other countries.
This site I used in my Australian-Germans slide. It gave me all the information I didn't have and was easy to navigate. It is a site made by the New South Wales government leading it to be pretty reliable, but it didn't have the author of the article, making it difficult to prove it more relaible
I used this website a lot throughout my assignment. Skwirk is made to suit the Australian curriculum, so it had a lot of the information I need. It is a pay-to-use site for majority of it, meaning it is reliable because people wouldn't pay for an unreliable site.
The thing I used most for use on this task was my workbook. It had majority of the information I needed to put together a presentation. Government schools cannot just teach students fake things meaning the information I recived was more likely than not reliable