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Chapter 10- Developing a Collaborative Classroom
Transcript of Chapter 10- Developing a Collaborative Classroom
Developing A Collaborative Classroom
Gender and Sexual Orientation What can we say about this photo in terms of socialization? What is Gender?
How do we come to have it? Gender- in the American social construct is the culture of the male and the female in a dualistic identification system.
Note that this is not the sex of the person, for sex is biological while gender social.
Normative Behaviors (Norms)- behaviors that have been defined as acceptable or "suitable" for the respective genders. They describe rules and expectations for what boys and girls should wear, how they should speak and act, and their "place" in society.
They allow us to adequately navigate social situations.
Ex: A woman wearing lipstick.
Deviant Behaviors- behaviors that defy normative behavior and the gender culture. They can lead to social sanctions by society.
Ex: A man wearing lipstick. The question then is how does one man or woman acquire this culture? Socialization- the process by which young children acquire the knowledge of and internalize societal values.
Leads to the development of self-identity, beginning with the understanding that one is separate from mother, father, and family. This perception begins when an infant is 7-8 months old.
Because socialization continues througout the lifespan, new experiences can cause significant changes in a person's identity.
An important aspect of that identity is Gender. The norms associated with a person's gender role may vary by race, ethnicity, social class, religion, and geographical region. As such, the two-gender system is not universal, but is culturally dependent. Nonetheless, all undergo a similar process of socialization.
The Process of Socialization
1. The child learns to distinguish between men and women, and between boys and girls, and to know what kinds of behavior are characteristic of each.
2. The child learns to express appropriate gender role preferences for him- or herself.
3. The child learns to behave in accordance with gender role standards.
It occurs not only through overt behavior towards children and adults, but through rewarding them with approval when they behave normally as well. The gender norms in the United States are generally based on the values held by middle class whites, though they are not necessarily always instilled within Americans of other social groups.
This sets the stage for social deviance and sanctioning, especially in schools which represent the dominant culture. Much like the previous school goal of assimilation of non-whites into the white culture, schools attempt to "mold" boys and girls into dominant gender roles, effectively ignoring different orentations and behaviors that students bring to school. 5 Major Challenges Related to the Gender Socialization of Boys and Girls:
1. Media's sexualization of young female performers/celebrities.
2. Marketing of unrealistic beauty standards through fashion magazines and the beauty/diet industry.
3. Video games that promote violence and negative stereotypes.
4. Music lyrics and music videos that promote negative stereotypes and violence.
5. Sex stereotypes in kids' TV programs and movies.
We can see this projection onto girls and boys as they age:
Girl toys range from Dora the Explorer to Bratz Dolls, to Hannah Montana and Lindsay Lohan. Yet, the existence of strictly girl toys is evidence of socialization and gender norms.
We also see this in traditional fairy tales involving a young women who is browbeanten, tricked, chased, put to sleep by wicked witches, and eaten, only to be rescued by the handsome young man and taken to his castle. These stories represent his power and characterize masculinity while at the same time characterizing femininity, albeit in a negative light. Masculine and Femine Behavior
American society favors the active, adventurous, and aggressive traits in people. This behavior lies most with the normative behavior of males, and therefore they have more freedom (privilege) than females, that is the middle-class gender roles limit girls more than boys.
However, though men have more freedom they also pay a higher price for deviations from the norm.
Ex: Girls can be "Tomboys" during their childhood years.
Ex: Boys would be labeled as "Sissies," a much more negative term, if they did not like contact sports as male culture demands.
Those young boys that do deviate are met with repeated punishment. Parents only describe what their sons are supposed to do in terms of what they shouldn't do. Boys correlate the beavior that leads to sanctions with femininity and thus they avoid it at all costs. In a paternalistic society, this disdain for the feminine leads to a repression of women who are socialized to instill within them feminine behavior. Schools as Socializing Agents
Schools have an important function as socializers to societal norms.
Because the norms are strongly believed as correct amongst school goers, they seem “normal” and “right.”
That sense of normality is one of the most powerful forces encouraging obedience to norms.
The power of gender role stereotypes is enormous and frequently costly to both males and females. Gender Stereotypes in Schools
Gender Role Stereotyping most often includes the belief that boys and men are (or should be) aggressive, independent, strong, logical, direct, adventurous, self-confident, and not emotional.
Girls and women are passive, weak, illogical, indirect, gentle, and extremely emotional.
Boys- good at math and science, are loud, and play sports.
Girls- good at English and writing, are quiet, and play with dolls.
Society, in part through schools, attempts to enforce these stereotypes.
Not only are boys and men perceived to be different from girls and women, but their learned behavior is generally more highly valued.
Gender role stereotypes are the basis for genderized traits.
Genderized Traits- traits that any person may be able to display but that are assigned value when displayed by people of the appropriate sex. Two Forces
Two forces in our society that help to enforce male and female stereotypes are misogyny and homophobia.
Misogyny- hatred of women
Homophobia- fear of homosexuality and homosexuals Homophobia
The irrational fear or hatred of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuals or homosexual behavior.
The fear of feminine qualities in men, whereas misogyny is the hatred of feminine qualities in women.
Between the two, feminine qualities are less valued and are even contemptible. Stereotypes, Biases, Discrimination
Sex-Role Stereotypes- present wherever specific behaviors, abilities, interests, or values are attributed to one sex or another.
Sex Bias- results from an underlying belief in sex-role stereotypes.
Discrimination- when based on sex, occurs when any action or rule or law denies opportunities, privileges, or rewards to members of a particular sex. Results
Gender role stereotypes serve to prevent men and women from having valuable human experiences; they limit growth and development both by denying such experiences and by creating anxiety in children.
They also create social and institutional barriers against the development of interests, goals, and talents in young people that may be outside the gender role “parameters.” Legislation and Cort Cases
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972- prohibit discrimination in elementary and secondary schools on the basis of sex: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
Grove City v. Bell (1984)- Supreme Court agreed that only those programs or activities that receive direct federal assistance can be held accountable to Title IX.
In 1988, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act which established that all educational institutions that receive any federal funding, directly or indirectly, are bound by Title IX legislation.
Franklin v. Gwinnet County Public Schools (1992)- petitioners may claim punitive damages under Title IX when intentional action to prevent Title IX compliance is established. In Perspective
One of the most difficult problems facing teachers and students is the relationship between heterosexual and homosexual students.
The belief that gay men are feminine and that lesbian women are masculine is a stereotype that bears little resemblance to reality.
One of the most difficult aspects of being homosexual in a homophobic society is the separation of sexuality and gender role.
The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network found that 42 states do not meet minimum criteria for protecting all students, particularly gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered students.
Given that 27 states have passed amendments that assert that marriage is between a man and a woman, and given that there many more will probably come, and along with interest groups such as Focused on Family which created political action affiliates, there is an even greater need for teachers and other school people to seriously consider school climate and curriculum issues that may help to make schools safe for all students, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered students. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EvjGTnG9Y40 1. If you have ever been scared to walk down the street due to the clothes you like to wear, STEP BACK. 2. If you have ever been sexually harassed, STEP BACK. 3. If you have ever been made fun of due to the way you speak, STEP BACK. 4. If you feel comfortable walking through the hallway, STEP FORWARD. 5. If you almost always feel comfortable with people knowing your sexual orientation, STEP FORWARD. 6. STEP FORWARD if you can turn on the t.v. and see a majority of the people with similar sexual orientations to your own represented. 7. STEP BACK if you have ever been the only one with your sexual orientation in the classroom. 8. If you always feel comfortable holding your partner’s hand in public, STEP FORWARD. 9. If you have read more than six books with characters that are easily relatable to you in most ways, STEP FORWARD. How do we assess in the Collaborative Classroom?
Task Specialization- assignment of a specific subtask to each member of a team or group helps everyone contribute significantly, but especially so with those who have disabilities or fall under other extenuating circumstances. They may be more suited to one group or the other because they are students with distinct abilities as well.
What is our Role?
Students work in teams, discuss issues, engage in group problem solving, and help one another understand the material at hand. Teachers work with students to inquire, reflect, and share and modify ideas. Developing the Collaborative Classroom
Challenge the idea that science and math are "Male" areas of study and that English and Social Studies are the limited only to females.
Confront Homophobic Language: Do not tolerate homophobic (or any other kind of) name-calling. Present the counter-argument expressing that homosexuality has a biological basis. Thus, prejudice towards homosexuals is the equivalent of hating a classmate because he or she is tall or has blonde hair.
This is all done in an effort to develop the Gender-Sensitive Classroom, where males and females of all gender identities and sexual orientations have the same opportunity to succeed academically. We emphasize the Collaborative Classroom for two reasons:
We are members of an interdependent global economic and political community, and many theorists suggest that we must learn to live cooperatively with one another rather than continue to engage in the kinds of destructive competition that produce hunger, disease, and war.
Based on the 30+ years of gender research we know that Girls and women focus on preserving relationships while boys and men focus on principles of behavior. Also, girls and women tend to learn more effectively when collaboration rather than competition is central to the teaching-learning process. The Collaborative Classroom
Competition, Cooperation, and Collaboration are woven throughout both instructional and evaluative processes. Likewise, while group activities and performance are stressed, so is individual acquisition of skills and knowledge and performance. When a competitive environment threatens classroom equity, it becomes problematic.
They require teachers, school personnel, parents, and community members to work together to plan and implement instructional goals. This breeds new ideas, fresh strategies, and new perspectives on teaching.
Because of collaboration with other teachers in different areas of expertise, lessons and other activities tend to benefit from the integration of different disciplines and skills. Builds connections.
Involvement of parents is central to effective education, not as a response to difficulties. Parents are the child’s first and continuing teachers and are therefore natural partners for collaboration.
Students cooperate w/ one another in planning their activities. So students bring useful knowledge from multiple backgrounds and experiences allowing them to assist one another in acquiring newknowledge. The Collaborative Classroom is founded in the idea that teachers work together to plan units and teach in teams.
This is a very similar idea to what the students are asked to do: Work together in groups through Cooperative Learning.
Cooperative Learning- characterized by Positive Goal Interdependence where individuals share the same group goals and they are accountable to one another. Therefore, group cohesiveness is paramount. Cooperative Learning is effective because...
Cooperative groups must work to achieve a group’s goal that cannot be mastered unless each member performs his or her assigned task.
Each individual in the group must still be held accountable for learning the required content. Students make sure they all have mastered the assigned content and have earned satisfactory grades. Each individual has differentiated tasks whose successful performance is critical to achieving the group goal.
Also have interpersonal interaction, development of social skills, and group reviews that help members analyze how well they are functioning. Note that cooperative learning does not imply devaluation of individual contributions or lack of individual accountability. When people of different cultural backgrounds and differing physical characteristics have the opportunity to work together in pursuit of a common goal, the barriers or stereotype that prevent people from knowing one another as individuals are likely to be broken down. Roles of the Student and Teacher
Students work in teams, discuss issues, engage in group problem solving, and help one another understand the material at hand.
Teachers work with students to inquire, reflect, and share and modify ideas. Lack of Parental Involvement is Due To:
A Significant Transient Population- many schools have children whose families move frequently, thus forcing their children to attend new schools
Alienation Between the Home and School- social class separates families from teachers and administrators furthered by racial factors. Poor parents want the same things like a good education, good behavior, etc., but don’t know how to assist their children in attaining these goals.
School-Generated Problems- the school is simply insensitive to the needs and problems of students and their families.
Disintegration of the Family- this is inferred, based on the large number of children who seem to be cared for by adults other than their natural parents. But this is misunderstanding and misattribution b/c this is just a redefinition of the concept of the family and doesn’t characterize that it is not one. Places of Content Knowledge
Boundaries between academic disciplines tend to become less defined with the pooling of knowledge in the pursuit of integrated projects. Content then becomes something meaningful to students who learn to make connections between areas of knowledge that, after all, blend together in the world outside school. Assessment: Old and New
Learning is less dependent on teacher talk and more dependent on group activities (projects, problem-solving situations, study groups) that take place over time. Therefore, compatible evaluation techniques are those that measure performance over time, like the creation of artifacts and portfolios and demonstrations of individual and group problem-solving ability. Assessments should go beyond standardized tests and:
Include a variety of techniques
Encourage students to go beyond simple recall of data or facts
Close the gap between the classroom and the real world
Include opportunities for students to perform tasks and solve problems
Variety is key for increasingly effective instruction in an exciting classroom. Walk the Line... Schools are reformed when the relationships of power begin to change and when the voices and concerns of parents and the community are heard, engaged with, and acted upon. Perspectives on Gender and Sexuality
More than half of 17-year-olds are sexually active.
While the number of sexually active teenagers is lower than it was 10 or 15 years ago, it is still very high.
The U.S. has the highest teen pregnancy and birthrates in the industrialized world.