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Grammar

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Laura Abercrombie

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Grammar

Grammar
Boot Camp

Split Infinitives
An infinitive is a verb preceded by the word to: (to write, to examine, to take, to cooperate). When an adverb appears between to and the verb itself, we get a split infinitive.
Pronouns
Commas and Run on Sentences
apostrophes
Complete review D on page 833
Misplaced Modifiers
5. complete exercise 2 on page 715, and Review A on page 716 in the grammar book.
Here most problems occur when the antecedent may be either masculine or feminine. To avoid gender bias, it is best to use his or her in such sentences. For example,

Incorrect:
Each faculty member of the department is encouraged to share his grant proposals with the committee.
Correct:
Each faculty member of the department is encouraged to share his or her grant proposals with the committee.

Complete exercise
6 on page 599
Complete exercise 6 on page 795 (you may need to read the section on commas starting with page 783
Check out Grammar Girl's post on apostrophes
1. http://tinyurl.com/ggapostrophe
2. http://tinyurl.com/ggapostrophe2
Four rules about quotation marks:
Quotation Marks
In essays, research papers, or reports, when a quotation is more than four lines long, that quotation needs to be indented half an inch, double-spaced, and NOT enclosed in quotation marks. Such long quotations are also called
block quotes.
Complete review A on page 821
Usage Errors
Verbs and Adverbs
The Common usage errors you will be responsible for are:
Good vs. well
Lie vs. Lay
Affect vs. Effect
I vs. Me
Lose vs. Loose
Further vs. Farther
Then vs. Than
It's vs. Its
You're vs. Your
Their vs. They're vs. There
Too vs. To
Principal vs. Principle
Complete Exercise 6 on page 660.
Modifiers are just what they sound like—words or phrases that modify something else. Misplaced modifiers are modifiers that modify something you didn't intend them to modify. For example, the word only is a modifier that's easy to misplace.

These two sentences mean different things:

I ate only vegetables.

I only ate vegetables.

The first sentence (I ate only vegetables) means that I ate nothing but vegetables—no fruit, no meat, just vegetables. The second sentence (I only ate vegetables) means that all I did with vegetables was eat them. I didn't plant, harvest, wash, or cook them. I only ate them.
Keep modifiers as close as possible to the thing they are modifying.
In general, dangling modifiers are corrected by introducing the subject right after the modifier or including it in the modifying phrase.

Incorrect:
At five years old, my parents decided to move to a different town.
Correct:
When I was five years old, my parents decided to move to a different town.

While you were watching your favorite show, I managed to finish the first assignment.

The Big Bang Theory, I believe, is one of the greatest shows on television.
Non-defining clauses provide additional information about the noun they modify. These clauses are typically separated by commas.

Correct:
Anderson Cooper, who is Gloria Vanderbilt's son, is an excellent reporter.
Correct:
Thinking back, I realize now what kind of mistake I made.
Laura developed the film, and Jason printed the pictures.
Laura showed Jason how to cut the negatives, dust the lens and counters, and change the ink ribbons in the printers.

MLA Tip
A personal pronoun must also agree in person with its antecedent. Pronouns one, everyone, everybody are third person pronouns. They should be followed by he, his, him or she, her, hers.

Incorrect:
One should carefully consider your choice of major.
Correct:
One should carefully consider his or her choice of major.

If the subject of the sentence is a pronoun, that pronoun needs to agree in number with the verb.

Incorrect:
Neither of my classmates are taking the trip this summer.

In the sentence above, the pronoun neither is always singular, and it should take the singular form of the verb:

Correct:
Neither of my classmates is taking the trip this summer.

Agreement in Number
Indefinite Pronouns

Some indefinite pronouns are always singular:

anybody everybody anyone everyone
anything everything another each
either neither one no one
nobody someone somebody

Correct:
Neither of the best players in the last game was injured.
Correct:
Anyone of the guests is welcome to participate in the raffle.
Correct:
Everyone has cast his or her vote.
Some are always plural:

both few several many

Correct:
Few of the days this spring have been above 50 degrees.
Correct:
Several of the participants shared their personal experiences.

And some can be both singular or plural depending on the kind of noun they refer to.
all any most none some
Correct:
None of the food has been left after the party.
Correct:
None of the players have quit the team after a difficult season.
Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that refers to a noun preceding it in the sentence. This noun is called its antecedent.

Relative pronouns need to agree with their antecedents in number. If the nouns relative pronouns are referring to (antecedents) are plural, then the plural form of the verb is used, and if the noun is singular, then the singular form of the verb is needed.

Correct:
John was one of the players who were chosen to play in the final game.
Correct:
John is the player who has scored in most of the games.

And some can be both singular or plural depending on the kind of noun they refer to.
all any most none some
Correct:
None of the food has been left after the party.
Correct:
None of the players have quit the team after a difficult season.
Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun is a pronoun that refers to a noun preceding it in the sentence. This noun is called its antecedent.

Relative pronouns need to agree with their antecedents in number. If the nouns relative pronouns are referring to (antecedents) are plural, then the plural form of the verb is used, and if the noun is singular, then the singular form of the verb is needed.

Correct:
John was one of the players who were chosen to play in the final game.
Correct:
John is the player who has scored in most of the games.

Well can be an adjective or an adverb.
Good is ALWAYS an adjective and should NEVER be used to modify a verb.

complete Exercise 4 on page 499
complete exercise 5 on page 501
In formal writing, it is important to keep verb tenses consistent so that readers can follow the progress of ideas and arguments easily. In creative writing, verb tenses may be used inconsistently for effect, but in academic writing, it is important to use verb tenses consistently throughout a paper, carefully signaling any necessary shifts in tense.
When discussing a specific essay or piece of literature,
use the literary present tense
throughout the paper.
MLA Tip
Complete Review J on page 675
Parallel Structure
Conjoined items in a sentence must be in the same grammatical form.
Incorrect:
I like to jog and walking.
In the above sentence, to jog and walking are not parallel in grammatical construction.

Parallelism is the matching of the forms of words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. Editing your work for parallel construction improves clarity and emphasizes your points.

Correcting Faulty Parallelism:

To avoid faulty parallelism, the sentence above should be corrected to:

Correct:
I like jogging and walking.
Words, phrases, and clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) need to have parallel grammatical construction.

Incorrect:
We all need good nutrition and to exercise on a regular basis.
Correct:
We all need good nutrition and regular exercise.


Words, phrases, and clauses joined by a correlative conjunction (not only... but also, both... and, either... or, neither... nor) need to have parallel grammatical construction.
Incorrect:
I like both to read books and watching movies.
Correct:
I like both to read books and to watch movies.
Words, phrases, and clauses joined by a comparative expression (as much as, more than, less than) need to have parallel grammatical construction.

Incorrect:
I enjoy going out to a movie as much as I like to rent a movie and stay home to watch it.
Correct:
I enjoy going out to a movie as much as I enjoy renting a movie and staying home to watch it.
In the following example, inserting because before each of the elements makes each point a subordinate adverbial clause and adds to the clarity of the whole sentence.

Incorrect:
Many people maintain a healthy diet because they want to look healthy, it increases their energy, and they want to live longer.
Correct:
Many people maintain a healthy diet because they want to look healthy, because it increases their energy, and because they want to live longer.
Complete exercise 3 on page 425
The majority of the time you use affect with an a as a verb and effect with an e as a noun.
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/03/
Directions:
Click full screen. Progress through the presentation IN ORDER.
Submit each exercise as you finish, rather than in one big pile at the end.
First...a video. :D
Full transcript