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Social Media

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Juber Ali

on 6 January 2015

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Transcript of Social Media

Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. (
Source: Oxford Dictionary
)
Social Media: Definition
Social Media:Audience
Sonia livingstone (Audience) We no longer divide our time between media and other activities, but rather, for much of the time, we are both part of an audience and engaged with other activities.
(Livingstone, S. 2002:8)
imap
History of Social Media
The Arab Spring -Theories of spreading information through social media.
From Social Media and the Politics of Reportage : The 'Arab Spring e book. 'Using videos on phones to share on social network sites like facebook- alternative journalist.'
Public and Private of social media
UK government spies on people in social media:
Charles Farr, Director General of the Office for Security and Counter-Intelligence admits that security services monitor social media and emails
According to his legal interpretation there is no need for traditional intercept safeguards. under section 8(1) of Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000), internal communications between British residents within the UK may only be monitored pursuant to a specific warrant.
"External communications", however, may be monitored indiscriminately under a general warrant, according to section 8(4) of the act.

We know this from Edward Snowdon...
Social Media cont...
Social media refers to a set of online tools that are designed for and centered around social interaction. In practice, social media serves as a catchall phrase for a conglomeration of web-based technologies and services such as blogs, microblogs (i.e., Twitter), social sharing services (e.g., YouTube, Flickr, StumbleUpon, Last.fm), text messaging, discussion forums, collaborative editing tools (e.g., wikis), virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life), and social networking services (e.g. Facebook, MySpace)
(Hansen, Shneiderman, & Smith, 2011)
.
These tools vary dramatically in their purposes and approaches, but they share an emphasis on enabling users to communicate, interact, edit, and share content in a social environment
(Porter, 2008 and Tepper, 2003 in Bertot, Jaeger ,Hansen. 2011:30).




Social media -Government use. A good way to promote your campaign and businesses.
President Obama was strongly advocating the use of social media when he was presidential candidate Obama. A great deal of fundraising and organizing success of the Obama presidential campaign was tied directly to the extensive use of social media by the campaign
(Jaeger, Paquette, & Simmons, 2010).
Both at the behest of the Obama administration and as a natural outgrowth of the frequent use of social media by individuals, federal government agencies have enthusiastically embraced the use of social media for government purposes.
U.S. federal agencies have been using blogs, microblogs, wikis, and social networking sites
(Godwin, 2008 and Laris, 2009)
, and even virtual worlds (
Miller, 2009)
, among other social media, to create records, disseminate information, communicate with the public and between agencies for several years (
Barr, 2008, Hanson, 2008, Snyder, 2009 and Wyld, 2008).
This article helped underhand why the government use social media to advertise and the problem they face against social media. Though agencies are increasing their use of social media technologies as a way to extend government services, further reach individuals, offer government information, and engage members of the public in government efforts, agencies are in large part doing so through an antiquated policy structure that establishes the parameters for information flows, access, and dissemination
In article 'The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations'
(2012:34)
. Government agencies interact via the internet in several ways with third parties. As specific social media sites such as Facebook have become important platforms for information exchange, government agencies have created a presence on them. Agencies have also begun including third party widgets, modules, snippets, and plug-ins on their own websites. These are mini applications with dynamic content or services that are embedded within another web page. Finally, many social media and related sites offer Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that allow other programs and sites to call upon their content and services.
Government use in social media and the corruption it faces towards users and how they exploit information from users. I want to find out what implication the government and big cooperation have on social media. And How it effects the audience.
Theorist against Social media
Understanding Media Book:
Mcluhan
declared that the electric media of twentieth century- telephones, radio, movies, television were breaking the tyranny of text over our thoughts and senses. (2011:10)
Mcluhan
"Whenever a new medium comes along, people naturally get caught up in the information- the 'content'- it carries' The care about the news in the newspaper, the music on the radio, the shows on the TV, the words spoken by the person on the far end of the phone line. The technology of the medium, however, astonishing it may be, disappears behind whatever flows through it- facts, entertainment, instruction conversation". (2011:11)
Technology influenced in Social Media
Popular medium molds what we see and how we see it and eventually, if we use it enough it changes who we are, as individuals and as a society,
Mcluhan
: 'The effects of technology do not occur at the level of opinions or concept. (2011:11)
"The technology is just a tool, inert until we pick it up and inert again once we set it aside".
(2011:12)
Technology used in social media
David Sarnoff who pioneered radio RCA and television NBC . In a speech in 1955 Sarnoff blame for ill effects away from technologies and onto listener and watchers
"We are too prone to make technological instruments in the scapegoats for those who wield them. The products of modern science are not in themselves good or bad; it is the way they are used that determines their value".
(2011:12)
Size of products in technology
"Networked, computers have shrunk to the size of iphones and Blackberrys, the Feast has become a moveable one, available anytime, anywhere. It's in our home, our office, our car, our classroom, our purse, our pockets"
(Carr, N. 2011:12)
Even people who are wary of the net's ever-expanding influence rarely allow their concerns to get in the way of their use and enjoyment of technology'.
During the protests in Egypt- Many people involved in what might call 'Journalists practices' eyewitness reportage of events, analysis of those events in the larger political context, and video, audio and social media updates of information.
The news corporations: 'The newsphere has undergone a shift from a fairly organised, linear news flow structure, to chaotic organisation of information flows produced and disseminated globally by an, uncountable number of information transmitter'. Bruns
(2005:275)
calls this a 'paradigm shift' towards ' the collaborative, iterative and user-led production of content by participants in a hybrid user-provider, or producer role.

Social repercussions of technological change, such s blogging, citizen journalism and alternative media, have meant that it has been the act of interested individuals or groups, rather than professional journalists, which have allowed for reporting, analysing and disseminating of information on global scale
(Bownan & Willis, 2003:9)
Rodriguez (2001)
as a set of media reportage, production and dissemination practices that embedded within everybody lives of people specific to a historical, political and cultural context, though we do not suggest these practices are solely the domain of citizens.
Technology in social media
Security in social media
public/private to the government and corporate control
How social network function?
In John Bertot journal book
Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies (2010
) where he discusses the strength in social media.

Social media has four major potential strengths: collaboration, participation, empowerment, and time. Social media is collaborative and participatory by its very nature as it is defined by social interaction. It provides the ability for users to connect with each and form communities to socialize, share information, or to achieve a common goal or interest. Social media can be empowering to its users as it gives them a platform to speak. It allows anyone with access to the Internet the ability to inexpensively publish or broadcast information, effectively democratizing media. In terms of time, social media technologies allow users to immediately publish information in near real time.
(Bertot et al:2010:266).



Why Social Media has become influenced in our culture?
From Sonia Livingstone book '
Young people and new media Childhood and the Changing Media Environment '


Her book explores children in our generation becoming to additive and how we have technology to access information at home..
Sliverstone:(1996:286)
writes ‘television and other media and information technologies are doubly articulated into the culture of the household’.
'Media goods are widely represented as technologically innovative, as symbolic of social status, and at the same time as expensive and difficult to use’
(Livingstone,S. 2002:9)
From the book Carr, N. (2011) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember, Atlantic Books
From the book Carr, N. (2011) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember, Atlantic Books
From the book Carr, N. (2011) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember, Atlantic Books
From the book Carr, N. (2011) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember, Atlantic Books
In 1979, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis from Duke University had created the Usenet, that allowed internet users to post public messages.

The era of social media started 20 years earlier when Bruce and Susan Abelson founded 'Open Dairy' , an early social networking
site that brought together online diary writers into
one community.

The term ‘‘weblog’’ was first used
at the same time, and truncated as ‘‘blog’’ a year
later when one blogger jokingly transformed the
noun ‘‘weblog’’ into the sentence ‘‘we blog.’’


(Kaplan,A.M.,Haenlein.M.2009:60)
In article: Users of the world, unite! The challenges and
opportunities of Social Media
Andreas M. Kaplan Michael Haenlein 2010, 60

High-speed Internet access
further added to the popularity of the concept,
leading to the creation of social networking sites
such as MySpace (in 2003) and Facebook (in 2004)
(Kaplan,A.M.,Haenlein.M.2009:60)

This research process I had to go in-depth to see when social media first started. Here are my findings...
For the Future
New technology after social media will be: ‘‘virtual worlds’’: computer based
simulated environments inhabited by three dimensional avatars.
(2009:60)
Web 2.0 is a term
that was first used in 2004 to describe a new way in
which software developers and end-users started to
60 A.M. Kaplan and Haenlein says it 'utilize the World Wide Web; that is, as a platform
whereby content and applications are no longer
created and published by individuals, but instead
are continuously modified by all users in a participatory
and collaborative fashion.'
(Kaplan, M. Haenlein 2009:61)
Social media History cont...
Encyclopedia Britannica
Online, and the idea of content publishing belong to
the era of Web 1.0, they are replaced by blogs, wikis,
and collaborative projects in Web 2.0
From journal article, Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media.
'Social networking sites are applications that enable
users to connect by creating personal information
profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have
access to those profiles, and sending e-mails and
instant messages between each other. These personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, video, audio files, and blogs.'
(Kaplan, M. Haenlein,2009:63)
Facebook privacy violation
Facebook violated the privacy of users 'Facebook's belated admission that it was still tracking the web pages its members visited, even after they have logged out of the Facebook site.
(O'Connor, R, 2012:90)
Facebook is built on trust. As its executives struggled to explain the latest "inadvertent" privacy row over its "creepy" web-tracking practices, that trust was shaken once again "by criticism and speculation regarding how it uses browser cookies to get data about users".
(O'Connor, R. 2012:93)
Josh Constine posted on Insidefacebook.com " A lack of through documentation explaining what each of its cookies does has led some observers to assume that company is tracking offsite browsing behavior in order to target ads. Facebook needs to provide explanations for both the average user and privacy researchers about how exactly its cookies work in order to prevent these press flare-ups from giving users a negative impression and bringing on regulatory scrutiny from governments".
(O'Connor, R.2012:93)
Freedom of speech shows that the social media is to open and public.
'Some supported Zuckerberg's notion that privacy was dead'
(O'Connor, R.2012:95)

Cindy Gallop an Advertising consultant expressed her views as everyone is open to everything they say.
"The new reality that all of us live in today, personally and professionally, is one of complete transparency. Everything we do and say today, whether we are a person or a brand, business or company, is potentially in the public domain courtesy of the internet."

(O'Connor, R. 2012:95)
For facebook
Against facebook
Zuckerberg "people will remember us for what we build and how useful it is to them"
(O'connor,R.2012:97)

'Facebook and similar networks are collecting more information from and about us than ever before, and then acting as if they own it'
(O'connor.2012:97)

Craig Newmark "People use social networking tools to figure out who they can trust and rely on for decision making"
(2012:97)

"By the end of this decade, power and influence will shift largely to those people with the best reputations and trust networks, from people with money and nominal power"
(2012:98)
Privacy cont..
'‘Individuals have privacy to the extent that others have limited access to information about them, to the intimacies of their lives, to their thoughts or bodies’’
(Sheehan, 2002, p. 22)

(Weintraub, 1997)
. talks about Public ‘‘what is hidden or withdrawn
versus what is open, revealed, or accessible’’
According to Gal (2002), ‘‘public’’ and ‘‘private’’ are relative
terms and shift according to individual perspectives. The public/private dichotomy is thus more productively visualized as a ‘‘fractal distinction.’’ A fractal is defined as ‘‘a shape made of parts similar to the whole in some way’’
(Feder, 1988).
Gal explains,
‘‘Whatever the local, historically specific content of the dichotomy, the distinction between public and private can be reproduced repeatedly by projecting it onto narrower contexts or broader ones’’ (p. 81). For instance, a home is private when contrasted with the neighborhood. At the same time, public and private spaces exist within the home.

(In.Publicly private and privately public: social networking on Youtube.Lange.P:.2007:365)
More on public security...
In article: 'The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations' J.C. Bertot, Paul T. Jaeger, Derek Hansen. pg.35.
The government “is more than an allocator of services and values; it is an apparatus for assembling and managing the political information associated with expressions of public will and with public policy”
(Bimber, 2003:17).
Jake Newsome was jailed for six weeks for sending offensive facebook post about murdered schoolteacher Ann Maguire who was stabbed to death by a puil in Leeds.
On an open network like Facebook he says:
"Personally Im glad that teacher got stabbed up, feel sorry for the kid... he shoulda pissed on her too"
The opinions of other people are too explicit and can be easily seen by anyone who is on the internet and connected with social network like the police.
Is it right to jail someone for being offensive on Facebook or Twitter? | Law | The Guardian . 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/law/2014/jun/13/jail-someone-for-being-offensive-twitter-facebook. [Accessed 01 January 2015].

In article: The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations. 2011. pg.30-31
Social media technologies are now regularly employed by a majority of internet users. Among younger users, the use of these tools is nearing universal, such as 86% of 18–29 year olds using social media everyday
(Madden, 2010).
Similarly, 72% of adults and 87% of teens use text messages everyday (Lenhart, 2010). In July 2010, Facebook announced that it had over 500 million users. As the number of users has increased there has been a growing interest in applying social media toward addressing national priorities
(Pirolli
,
Preece, & Shneiderman, 2010),
not just using them for entertainment or corporate purposes.
In Journal article: The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations
John Carlo Bertot, Paul T. Jaeger ⁎, Derek Hansen:2011:30.
Media research tends to lose sight of the bigger picture, tending to transform the positives and negatives of people’s lives into images of positives and negatives of people’s lives into images of positive and negative children or young people, particularly negative ones. Without contextualization research tends to pit ‘old’ media against ‘new’ media (‘the end of print’, the end of the mass audience’, etc.), failing to recognize the complex ways in which they are mutually entangled in our daily lives.

(Livingstone, S. 2002.:10)

Young People and New Media: Childhood and the Changing Media Environment (2002)- Sonia Livingstone - Google Books. [ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=e4AHeRPLs0oC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=sonia+livingstone+young+people+and+new+media&ots=mzdJsH2rPw&sig=ChbnLPXxpfxxSZoDKO8VKshgPi0#v=onepage&q=sonia%20livingstone%20young%20people%20and%20new%20media&f=false. [Accessed 02 January 2015].




In journal article why youth heart social network sites by Danah Boyd she says about ’Profiles, Friends, and Comments Social network sites are based around profiles, a form of individual (or, less frequently, group) home page, which offers a description of each member. In addition to text, images, and video created by the member, the social network site profile also contains comments from other members and a public list of the people that one identifies as Friends within the network.’(
Boyd,D.2007:123)

Boyd,D. (2007) Why youth heart social network sites. [ONLINE] Available at: http://sjudmc.net/lyons/civicmedia1/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/boyd-Why-teens-heart-social-media.pdf. [Accessed 01 January 2015]. pg.123

Traditional media such as radio, books, and network television is primarily designed to be a broadcast platform
(one-to-many)
, whereas social media is designed to be a dialogue (many-to-many interaction)
(Porter, 2008).

Problems in social media from real life events...
Social media makes everyone express their opinions in different ways with freedom of speech. The Government monitors if any suspicious activity is taking place which helps 'security' that they are protecting other people. However, it takes away the freedom to say anything you like as it's being watched making people feel insecure about where their privacy. is at.
Problem with expressing your opinion is that everyone can see your opinion if it's an open (public) account. Regulations are taking place to ensure people who disrespectful or trying to cause trouble face the consequences. This shows you that social media has become too advanced.
Social Media:
Audience
Social media has helped expressed people's opinions on the news, entertainment, sports etc... that can be shared in real time.
Social media has taken over static 'books', magazines and newspapers. Majority of these can be accessed on the internet through different smart devices like tablets, laptops and mobile phones.
In article: Users of the world, unite! The challenges and
opportunities of Social Media
Andreas M. Kaplan Michael Haenlein 2010, 60-61

In the Routledge Companion to Media and Gender book. "Social media technologies can be seen as platforms for creativity and communication, as exemplified in websites such as Facebook, Youtube, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram. But these sites also are corporations seeking to turn a profit."
(Carter.C, Steiner.L, McLaughlin, L. 2013:157)
Audience: advertising
In the Routledge Companion to Media and Gender book. Social media platforms from the perspective of gender might well study the ways in which gender and sexuality influence communication behaviors, identity play, and self-promotion and branding
(Consalvo and Paasonen 2002)
'‘Audience power is produced, sold, purchased and consumed. It commands a price and is a commodity’
(Smthe 1981:256 in :(Carter.C, Steiner.L, McLaughlin, L. 2013:159)
Advertisers gain access to user data on social media websites is known as data-mining. ‘Personal identifiable (i.e. it cannot be used to single out individual users), but it can show overall trends among user demographics, interests, and preferences
(Chung and Grimes 2005)
‘Data Mining known as behavioural advertising, tracking technologies pick up how many times a user visits a particular site, or uses a particular search term, or click on hyperlink, as part making predictions about kinds of consumption patterns a group of users is likely to engage in over time.
(Stallworth 2010)
The Routledge Companion to Media and Gender - Google Books. (2013)[ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hJRWAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA157&dq=audience+in+social+media&ots=qSgJPl2Ybk&sig=TlFv4fcIYcKQvwlpMHpPsFVeE9s#v=onepage&q=audience%20in%20social%20media&f=false. [Accessed 02 January 2015].pg. 158
(In article Publicly private and privately public: social networking on Youtube. Patricia G. Lange
pg:2007:364.)
Bibliography
'In Youth and revolution in Tunisia' book by Honwana: ‘Iranian sociologist
Asef Bayt (2010 in Honwana, 2013:83)
has argued that western theories have not merely ignored what is going on in places such as Middle East and North Africa. But have concluded that social movements do not exist in these contexts.
Edward Snowdon- Government is looking at us... privacy is invaded.
In the book, Security Management International: Project Idea and Implementation by Oesten Baller. Some will argue, the new digital age is one that is changing the very nature of our social and political stability and thus security. NSA, Edward Snowdon 'mass surveliance disclosures (2013 and continuing) and Julian Assange 'WikiLeaks' (2006) the digital age and security questions have recently come to the fore with dramatic news-worthy headlines around the global media.
(2014:121)
...Britain is sliding towards an entirely new kind of surveillance society... What this adds up to is a new thing in human history: with a couple of clicks of a mouse, an agent of the state can target your home phone, or your mobile, or your email, or your address, or your log ins to a web service... (The Guardian, October 3, 2013 in Oesten book
(2014:121)
Bakardjieva argues 'the internet age (the digital age) based on trans-national and global communication in a new era and this is altering the relationship of the citizen to their formally geographically located state boundaries and political thinking.
(2014:124)
Social media-Users
Choice
In 'Socialnomics: How social media transform the way we live and do business' book by Erik Qualman explains 'Heavy social media users actually don't care about every little thing happening in their friend's lives all the time. ... Exceptional view every post, photo, tweet, or comment. Individual users make personal choices about how they establish their settings (privacy being one big item here) and, more importantly, viewing behavior.
(2012:28)

The users decide if they want to go private or public, as it's a choice to choose social media and be part of it.
Erik Qualman observed that we no longer search for the news, rather the news find us. According to data from Newspaper Association of America, advertising revenue for newspapers declined 18.1 percent, national advertising sales fell 18.4 percent and online sales dropped 3 percent.
(2012:34)
It just shows that digital media and social networks spread information quicker rather looking at newspaper the next day, to get the latest information.
NBC estimated that over 50 million people viewed the "Palin" skits. According to research conducted by Solutions Research Group: Saturday Night Live (SNL) television increased more than 50 percent over the previous year (2007), allowing NBC to profit from both end of the spectrum (online exposure and TV ratings) This resulted in SNL to develop SNL shorts specifically tailored to be passed around socially.
(2012:34)
Social media taking over static information
In this modern day, technology and social media helps spread information quicker than newspapers and magazines. Information is happening in real-time.
Benefits- Social media helps in promoting TV shows.
Qualman, Erik (2012) Socialnomics : How Social Media Transforms the Way We Live and Do Business. Wiley. [e-book] Pg. 28-34
In Journal article: Bertot, Jaeger ,Hansen. (2011) The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X11000992. [Accessed 27 December 2014]. pg. 30.
People brand themselves in social media to spread popularity- to gain likes, followers and build a fan base. This book helped understand the advertisement in social media and how corporations use data to gain the advantages in advertisements.
Culture of Identity
Social Media: Do you believe it or not?
This argument would be good in my Literature review. As she explains that top governments are listening to what is happening in 'The Arab Spring' Some of the information you see on YouTube is from citizens who upload and express their own opinions on what is happening in their country.
Social Media: Government and/or corporate control
Bibliography cont...
After reading through several articles and books relating social media. From the search term 'social media' These definitions help understand what social media is and how it is used.
I wanted to know when social media first established to the change it is now in this modern day. This book helped and understand the difference backing in 1979 to this modern day on how much information can be accessed through social media and technology.
I wanted to understand why technology is important to social media. And searching the term 'technology' in voyager. and reading through this book. It helped explored different views on how technology is used in this modern day. How we are influenced and become addictive to technology. Smartphones that control the applications like twitter and Facebook and people interacting on social media.
The way technology has become our culture to social media. The way we look at our phones and communicate instead of talking face to face. These theories show vast usage in technology. Through statistic and analyzing . I find this sources will be useful and important to backing my literature review.
Users problem...
Government problem...
Problem with social media...
Lederer
(2012)
suggest that social media can be a distraction. She argues that social media technology discourages face to face communication, that is "while real-time digital stream may create a safe harbor for students who are uncomfortable expressing themselves, students are missing valuable lessons in real-life social skills."
(Lederer,2012:2)
Public and private security
definition
Referencing

Bebawi, S. Bossio, D. (2014), Social Media and the Politics of Reportage : The 'Arab Spring', Palgrave Macmillan Pg. 1-8.

Bertot, C.J. Jaeger ,T.P. and Hansen,D. (2011) The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges, and recommendations. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740624X11000992. [Accessed 27 December 2014].

Bowman, S. & Willis, C. (2003) ‘We Media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information’, in NDN website. Accessed at www.ndn.org/webdata/we_media.htm.

Boyd,D. (2007) Why youth heart social network sites.[ONLINE] Available at: http://sjudmc.net/lyons/civicmedia1/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/boyd-Why-teens-heart-social-media.pdf. [Accessed 01 January 2015]. Pg.123

Baller, O. (2014) Security Management International: Project Idea and Implementation [ONLINE] Available at:https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Tj1qBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&lpg=PA5&dq=Security+Management+International:+Project+Idea+and+Implementation+edited+by+Oesten+Baller&source=bl&ots=ON0z7hazAP&sig=rsqGZSGUCLQOS_maya-HRc90nEo&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XkqpVLemGZDtaPrOgtAM&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Security%20Management%20International%3A%20Project%20Idea%20and%20Implementation%20edited%20by%20Oesten%20Baller&f=false. [Accessed 04 January 2015]. Pg. 121-124


Bertot, C.J., Jaeger, T.P., Grimes, M.J. (2010) Using ICTs to create a culture of transparency: E-government and social media as openness and anti-corruption tools for societies. University of Maryland, College Park: Elsevier Inc. p. 265-266.

Carr, N. (2011) The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember, Atlantic Books. pg.10-13

Carter.C, Steiner.L, McLaughlin, L. (2013) The Routledge Companion to Media and Gender [ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=hJRWAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA157&dq=audience+in+social+media&ots=qSgJPl2Ybk&sig=TlFv4fcIYcKQvwlpMHpPsFVeE9s#v=onepage&q=audience%20in%20social%20media&f=false. [Accessed 02 January 2015].pg. 157-159

Chung,G and S. Grimes (2005) “Data Mining the Kids: Surveillance and Market Research Strategies in Children’s Online Games,” Canadian Journal of Communication 30(4): 527-48.

Consalvo. M. and S.Paasonen (eds.) (2002) Women & Everyday Uses of the Internet: Agency and Identity, New York: Peter Lang.

Honwana, A. (2013) Youth and Revolution in Tunisia. Zed Books. Pg. 83.

Hansen, D. L., Shneiderman, B., & Smith, M. A. (2011). Analyzing social media networks with NodeXL: Insights from a connected world. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Jaeger, P. T., Paquette, S., & Simmons, S. N. (2010). Information policy in national political campaigns: A comparison of the 2008 campaigns for President of the United States and Prime Minister of Canada. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 7, 1–16.

Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein,M. (2010) Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons: Volume 53, Issue 1. Pg. 60-63

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After reading this book I understood how social media can be a distraction to the younger generations and the power social media on connecting with friends and family.
These quotes helped from its respected books/writers helped underline why audience is important to social media.
How big companies and technology work together to invest in social media.
The implications of having an audience that is growing through a network.
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