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Temperate Rainforest

Science 10 Biome Research Project

Lance Rances

on 13 April 2013

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Transcript of Temperate Rainforest

Physical Features Plant Adaptation Survival Situations Questions Nutrition Cycle Temperature The Temperate Rainforest has an abundance of diverse plant life
With this plant life, there are many adaptations to go along with the region of the forest.
Douglas fir trees, for example, reach heights of almost 300 feet to get more sunlight for food and warmth. Forest fires and storms do occur in the region, so these trees have thick bark and deep roots to protect them from these disasters. Their thick bark also prevents moisture loss. These would be a structural adaptation
Epiphytes, which are air plants that do not depend on soil, grow high up in the branches and trunks of trees so that they can reach the sunlight for energy. This would be a behavioural adaptation Temperate Rainforest There are 4 important steps to remember in order to survive in the temperate rainforest:

1. Build a shelter
find an area nearby a river or stream for water
high, flat, dry ground sheltered by canopy trees from the rain
an area hidden by dangerous animals such as wolves, bears, etc.
use resources such as trees, tree branches, and leaves for covering 2. Build a fire
for the cold, damp temperatures
to prevent from the many insects (mosquitos) from biting
to cook any food that can be caught 1. Compare and contrast the difference between the temperate rainforest and the tropical rainforest.

2. What are some reasons as to why the temperate rainforest is important, globally? FOUR Layers There are 4 main layers in the temperate rainforest:
1. Emergent Layer - Tallest trees that get all the sunlight
2. Canopy Layer - Trees that grow near each other, forming a cover around the forest floor
3. Understorey Layer - Small trees, bushes, and plants
4. Forest Floor - shrubs, plants, fallen leaves etc. by Lance Rances Average temperature is 5 - 25 degrees celcius
This is due to the latitude of the region. On the globe, the temperate rainforest is located far from the equator, about 38 to 60 degrees north and south of the equator
The tilt of the Earth's axis makes the suns rays hit the region at an angle, so there is indirect heat
Ocean currents from the warmer tropical areas make the temperate rainforests warmer than other temperate areas Average rainfall exceeds 200 cm (350cm in warmer areas)
Due to the narrow strip of land along the coastline, backed up by mountains. As clouds pick up from nearby ocean, the winds push it to the coastline, then are stopped by mountain ranges. Precipitation Carbon CYCLE The carbon cycle starts off in the atmosphere of the temperate rainforest
Here, it is used up by trees including the Douglas Fir and the Cedar, and various other plants like ferns and grasses for photosynthesis
Insects such as the praying mantis, moths, and ants then eat these plants and the carbon is passed on
the cycle is continued: these insects are then eaten by reptiles like the long-toed salamander
deer now eats the leaves off of the Douglas fir
a carnivore such as a wolf or a cougar now comes in to play and eats the deer
these animals, insects or plants either get eaten, or they die and their bodies get decayed and decomposed in the soil
detritivores, such as earthworms and beetles, break down the decayed material and the carbon is released into the soil and pushed down into the ground until it becomes sedimentary rock Nitrogen CYCLE In the rivers and lakes of the temperate rainforest, marine plants such as plankton have carbon, and they are eaten by fish such as salmon and trout. Once these plants or animals die, the carbon is dissolved in the water and the cycle continues.
carbon is mainly found in the air because of animal respiration and gas exchange in the rivers and lakes. nitrogen gets into the soil through nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes such as clover. Here, bacteria change the nitrogen gas in the air into nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium
nitrogen is found in plants such as the Douglas fir tree, the Western Red Cedar, and the Spruce tree
Animals, including deer and rabbits, and insects eat these leaves on the trees
Carnivores, like wolves, bears, cougars etc. eat these animals and the nitrogen is passed on
when the plant or animal dies, its body decays into the ground and detritivores, such as earthworms and beetles (fungus and bacteria) decompose its matter and release the nitrogen back into the soil. the same process occurs in the rivers and lakes of the temperate rainforest. Nitrogen gets into the water either by weathering of dissolved ammonium and nitrate
OR nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, such as kelp, that change the nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into a form that can be used by plants and other marine life
Plants such as plankton get nitrogen from these bacteria and are eaten by fish like trout and salmon. They die and the cycle continues denitrification occurs when bacteria take the ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate, and release back into the atmosphere as nitrogen gas 3. Look for FOOD
there is an abundance of plant life on the lower levels of the forest where one can search for edible plants or fruits
search in the river or stream for fish or other aquatic animals. construct a fishing pole or a net and look for earthworms for bait
one COULD hunt with a spear. 4. Clothing
one would ideally wear warm clothing in the cold temperature: a thick waterproof jacket with multiple layers, and boots for the high rainfall
clothing could be a source of catching food: can be constructed into a net to catch fish Landscape Temperate rainforests are mainly forests that accumulate and store more organic matter per hectare than any other forest
Soil is very rich because of the many dead, decayed material that are decomposed into the ground.
there are four distinct seasons, with spring and summer being fairly warm , and fall and winter reaching temperatures of below freezing
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