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Transcript of Proteins
C and N terminus
Hydrogen bonds due to dipole-dipole moment
Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated Folds
Hydrogen bonds, disulphide bridges, metal-ion bonds, and dipole-dipole moments
Combination of secondary structures
More complicated; using above forces but "sides" must fit together- LEGOS
Combination of tertiary strucutres Functional Classification Of Proteins Main functions of proteins:
Enzymatic - catalysts
Structural - connective tissues
Regulatory - hormones
Transporting - blood cells
Immune - antibodies
Contractile - muscle fibers
Storage - egg whites
Receptors - cell membrane Prions Prions attack the central nervous system by degenerating the contact between nerve cells and building up into masses called amyloids.
These amyloids are what cause the lesions on the brain. Prion origins and Treatment There are many theories on how prions originated but non have been proven as of yet.
Point mutation caused by the environment much like the oncogene being expressed to cause cancer.
Genes and Heritage much like Alzheimer's. Prions are the highly infectious misfolded proteins
often associated with terminal illnesses such as Mad Cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
We know very little about prions themselves.
These diseases are classified as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy diseases (TSE).
Alzheimer's is not apart of this classification because it is not known to be transmissible from one subject to another. Biosynthesis and Metabolism Biosynthesis:
Transcription of DNA into mRNA within the nucleus in three steps:
Translation of the mRNA into tRNA and then binding the tRNA to a ribosome to produce the protein in the cytoplasm in four steps:
Proteins are broken down into their 20 starting molecules, amino acids, in the digestive system.
Proteins are also denatured due to environmental changes becoming inactive. Primary Protein Structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Proteomics Study of expressed proteins
2D gel electrophoresis
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Detect progression of disease
Disease related proteins
Biomarkers Insulin and Diabetes Process of Formation
Rough ER Processing
Golgi Body Processing Uses
Lowers blood sugar
Converts glucose into glycogen
Stored in the liver
Affects fat metabolism
Fatty acids build up in liver
Triglyceride accumulation Treatments under research No known cures for Prion diseases.
Possible treatment with Trimesic acid based compounds with Chloroquinoline moieties.
Too large to effectively move between the Brain-Blood barrier and not very soluble in water. Silk Made from caterpillar cocoons
One of the strongest textile fibers, even wool
Sericin & Fibroin silk from chinese silk moth
(Bombyx mori) Spider Silk Strongest material
5 times stronger than steel
Stretched 2-4 times its original length
7 glands, 7 types of silk
Males have 3 , Females up to 4 magnified image of spider silk spigots Diabetes Health Issues Diabetes Mellitus
Body does not produce insulin
Body does not respond to insulin
Oligomerized hexamer with a zinc center