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Agile adoption & helping to change organisational culture

A behavioural approach to changing culture to become more agile based on Hofstede’s cultural factors and the Transtheoretical Model of behavioural change.
by

Matthew Hodgson

on 9 July 2014

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Transcript of Agile adoption & helping to change organisational culture

Geert Hofstede
Bertram Raven
Edwin Hollander
Bob Waisfisz
Bruce Tuckman
practices
values
rituals
heroes
symbols
internal organisational
cultural influences
external
cultural
influences
What
Who
Few defined processes
Low quality
Many, many projects
Few resources to go around
Agile methods seen (by some) as a way to fix things
Where
When
Most visible over the last two-three years
Likely to have always been a problem
Systemic:
All projects
Between projects
Between projects and governance layers
Problem Space
State of Agile Survey
15% reported no failure
39% report problems with some aspect of cultural change
What is culture?
What influences culture?
How does change work?
Activities
On your own
Use the 5Ws pattern to describe your problem space in changing culture:
Timebox: 5m
What is it about?
Who is it happening to?
Where is it taking place?
When did it start?
Why/How ... will come later
With your table
Share your problem spaces with each other
Ask questions for clarification
No problem solving
Choose a single problem space for your table to work on together
Timebox: 5m
Software & non-software teams
PMs low capability maturity
PMO low capability maturity
Poor team coordination between functional silos - UX/Dev/BA/Test/Server
Business stakeholders with high expectations
Why
We're changing people's behaviour
Many forces like 'culture' impede/promote behavioural change
Changing behaviour is hard
"75% to 80% of smokers who attempt to quit relapse before achieving 6 months of abstinence"
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS, 1990).
Two things to examine:
What is this thing called 'culture'
How can we influence it to help people change their behaviour to adopt agile methods
"as-is" and "to-be" definition doesn't work
people don't change overnight
change is a gradual process
changing culture is like changing a person's personality
Our approaches are flawed
What is culture?
"the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organisation from others"
Daniel Modaff
"Root metaphor ... created through communication and symbols, or competing metaphors. Culture is basic with personal experience producing a variety of perspectives"
Martin Parker
"organisations might have many cultures, and that such sub-cultures might overlap and contradict each other"
- Parker, M. (2000) Organizational Culture and Identity.
- Modaff, D.P., DeWine, S., & Butler, J. (2011). Organizational communication: Foundations, challenges, and misunderstandings
Four cultural dimensions
Power Distance (PDI)
Individualism v. Collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity v. Femininity (MAS)
Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
Long-term orientation (LTO)
Pragmatic v. Normative (PRA)
Indulgence v. Restraint (IND)
Then there were 7 ...
Power Distance (PDI)
Individualism v Collectivism (IDV)
Masculinity v. Femininity (MAS)
Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
Less powerful members accept/expect that power is distributed unequally
Accept a hierarchical
Everybody has a place
Needs no justification
Preference for a loosely-knit social framework
Individuals take care of only themselves

versus

Tightly-knit framework
Individuals can expect others (in-group) to look after them
Exchange care for unquestioning loyalty
Achievement, heroism, assertiveness, material rewards for success

versus

Cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life
"...how a [group] deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen?"

Strong UAI: rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.

Weak UAI: maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles ....

... [interactions over process???]
Identify the 'groups' from the 'who' section of the problem space
Rate each group 1-10 on the 4 cultural dimensions
Identify why you would give them that rating
Rate culture on the 4 dimensions
Timebox: 5 min
The external influences
The internal influences
1980s study in IBM
Over 160,000 employees
50 different countries
3 regions of work
Looked for differences
Looking for aspects of culture that might influence business behaviour
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Power
Kurt Lewin
Threat of force - physical, social, emotional, political, or economic
Seeks to gain compliance
Coercive power
Tangible
Social
Emotional
Spiritual
Ability to give or deny rewards
Reward power
Power from hierarchy
Authority underpins social norms
Administers feelings of obligation & responsibility
Legitimate power
Jack French
Emphasises similarity
Reinforces affiliation & belongingness
Referent power
Leadership
Autocratic
Centralised power with the leader
Don't entertain suggestions or initiatives from subordinates
Make decisions then share them with the rest of the group
Shares decision-making with group members
Promotes interests of the group
Practices social equality
Participative
(democratic)
(authoritarian)
Laissez-faire
(free-rein)
Anyone can lead
The group is left to fend for itself
Subordinates are motivated to be creative and innovative
Means-oriented vs. Goal-oriented
Internally driven vs. Externally driven
Easygoing work discipline vs. Strict work discipline
Local vs. Professional
Open system vs. Closed system
Employee-oriented vs. Work-oriented
Degree of acceptance of leadership style
Degree of identification
Dimensions of Organisational Culture
- Hofstede & Waisfisz
Idiosyncracy Credit
Which culture is yours similar to?
Look at the 5 cultural clusters
Which does your most look like?
Let's share!
1. What was the problem space you chose?
2. How would you describe its culture?
3. How did you decide to influence and then maintain change?
Timebox: 5 m per group
Capacity to acceptably deviate from group expectations
Credits are increased (earned) each time an individual conforms
Influencing change
Leon Festinger
Group Dynamics
Us vs Them
Identity drives conformity, morale, belongingness
Identity of one group is just as important as not belonging to another group
Organisational Culture
Helping to change
Lewin’s three step model:
Unfreeze – explain why things should be done differently
Moving – develop in people new insights, attitudes and skills
Freezing – the newly acquired skills should be developed into a new routine and feeling positive about a new mastery of our environment.
Applying influence to change
Groups' influences
Groups normative values
Groups go through forming, storming, norming phases
Norming keeps everyone's values and behaviour aligned to the group
Groups will re-storm/norm when new members are introduced
Leverage this to influence change
The stages of change
instagram.com/zenexmachina
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facebook.com/zenexmachina
zenexmachina.wordpress.com
@magia3e
zenexmachina.com
Matthew Hodgson
Partner, Agile/Lean Enterprise Transformation
James Prochaska
Carlo DiClemente
AWARENESS
DESIRE
KNOWLEDGE
ACTION
REINFORCEMENT
of the need to change
to support & initiate change
of how to change
to implement change
to sustain change
Leadership & Power
1. What form of Leadership is going to be most effective for your culture?

2. What form of Power will work best to influence change from 'fixed' to 'moving'
Timebox: 5 min
Timebox: 5 min
Steps to change
Complete the 5 ADKAR steps for change
How are you going to get the group from 'Awareness' to 'Action'?
How are you going to 'Reinforce' change once it occurs?
Describe how Leadership & Power types will influence, empower & reward
Ensure it aligns with the Cultural Cluster
Timebox: 10 min
PMO
PMO
kanban
teams'
physical
kanbans
PMO
coordination & support
PMO
coordination & support
PMO
coordination & support
Scrum
of
Scrums
PMO lead
as Master
Scrum Master
Lean
coffee
unconscious
incompetence
conscious
incompetence
conscious
competence
unconscious
competence
As-is > To Be
You can't just "roll out" change from one organisational culture to the next
There are "stages" and "states"
Kurt Lewin
Success or failure with change and adoption of agile methods?
Weight: 95 lbs
Height: 5'4"
Weight: 240lbs
Height: 6'2"
as-is
to-be
define the delta
roll-out
Searching for answers
mastery
autonomy
purpose
RSA Animate - Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us
Conclusions
Change is hard
Culture:
Different things influence different groups
Influences are a mixture of internal factors
Comprises different sub-cultures and sub-groups

Change occurs:
In stages/steps
At different rates for different groups
Slowly

Changing people:
Requires a 'people-based' (psychological) approach
Focus on behaviour
Requires continuous reinforcement/support
Expert power
What you know
Experience
Special skills
Talents
RELAPSE
FIN
Full transcript