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Stem Cells Technology

Made by Tanmay and Neethu
by

Tanmay Thulkar

on 6 September 2012

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Transcript of Stem Cells Technology

- Made by Tanmay and Neethu Stem Cells - A new hope for Tomorrow photo (cc) Malte Sörensen @ flickr Heart attacks and heart failure remain among the Nation's most prominent health challenges despite many breakthroughs in the cardiovascular medicine. Introduction For those suffering from these common, but deadly, heart diseases, stem cell biology has opened new doors for them. Researchers are working toward using stem cells to replace damaged heart cells. Heart failure and Heat attack are one of the most common heart diseases that people have. Cardiac Diseases Heart failure is caused by the loss or dysfunction of heart muscle cells. this condition is mainly caused due to heart attack, which is also known as myocardial infarction. Other contributors for causing the condition of heart failure are Hypertension and Coronary Artery Disease. Hope for a better tomorrow Researchers are now trying to explore new ways to save additional lives by replacing dead and impaired cells with the help of stem cell technology, so that the weakened heart muscle can regain its pumping power. Despite advances in surgical procedures, mechanical assistance devices, drug therapies and organ transplantation, more than half of the patients die within five years of initial diagnosis. The answer to this question lies in the special property of stem cells to develop and become different types of specialized cells i.e., like a cardiomyocyte or smooth muscle cell. So that we are able to repair weakened heart muscles and tissue. How can stem cells help in creating new cardiac cells? Researchers now know that under highly specific growth conditions in the laboratory culture dishes, stem cells can be coaxed into developing as new cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Scientists are interested in exploiting this ability to provide replacement tissue for the damaged heart. If scientists do succeed, they would be able to replace the procedure of heart transplantation to a very large extent. Stem cells are biological cells which can divide and proliferate into various types of specialized cells and can renew themselves to form more stem cells. So what exactly are these stem cells ? In mammals the stem cells are of two types:- 2) Adult stem cells 1) Embryonic stem cells Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells/Somatic Stem cells As the name suggests, embryonic stem cells are derived from the embryological stages of mammals. These are either derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst or earlier morula stage embryos They are Pluripotent stem cells so, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. As the name suggests the adult stem cells are found in the body after its initial development. These are undifferentiated cells, which multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. They can be found in juvenile as well as adult animals and human bodies. Unlike Embryonic stem cells they are derived from adult tissue samples like bone marrow, rather than destroyed human embryos. Preparing of Stem Cell Lines Sources of Stem cells Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst or earlier morula stage embryos. 1)Bone marrow 2)Adipose tissue 3)Blood Few accessible sources of adult/somatic stem cells in humans are:

Extraction/ Isolation of Stem Cells 4) umbilical cord (fetal stem cells) 5) Pulp of wisdom tooth Human embryonic stem cells are derived from donated embryos that would otherwise be discarded. The extraction the HES cells takes place from the inner cell mass, from the blastocyst stage of the embryo. The ICM cells are plated onto cells that will supply support E.g: fibroblast. The ICM cells attach and expand further to form a human embryonic cell line, which are undifferentiated. 1) Extraction of stem cells from the Bone marrow requires the process of harvesting, which is basically drilling into bone (typically the femur).
Then the pluripotent stem cells are differentiated from this extracted bone marrow. 3) stem cells are extracted from the Blood, with the help of pheresis, in which blood is drawn from the donor passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. 2) Stem cells can be extracted from Adipose tissue (lipid cells), with the help of extraction technique by liposuction. Human Adult Stem cells are extracted from the following source by the following methods:- Preservation Of Stem Cells
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