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Copy of Frontal Lobe

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Emma N

on 15 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Frontal Lobe

Frontal Lobe
By Rafael Abbariao, Debra Chan, Emma Noblesala, Zachariah Ooi, & Ashif Ullah
1861: Paul Pierre Broca, French anatomist, observed postmortem brains of two people who lost the ability to speak. He discovered that they both had damage to the left frontal lobe.
-created a connection between the left frontal lobe and speech
There once was a man named Phineas Gage...
HISTORY of the FRONTAL LOBE
1936: icepick lobotomy - the insertion of a leucotome through each eye socket and usage of a mallet to drive it into the brain instead of drilling holes into the skull
-Walter Freeman
1848: John Harlow, Phineas Gage's doctor, discovered that Gage's respected and admired personality changed to that of a childish, impulsive person after his injury.
1935: frontal lobotomy - the cutting of connections between the Prefrontal Cortex and rest of the brain.
-1949 Nobel Prize in medecine to Egas Moniz
LOCATION
-One of the four lobes in the cerebral cortex
-Positioned at the front most region
-Three main divisions of the frontal lobe
-prefrontal cortex, the premotor area and the motor area
-Prefrontal cortex- responsible for personality expression and cognitive behaviors
-Pre motor and motor area- contains nerves that control the execution of voluntary muscle movement.

TREATMENTS
-Brain cells are not able to regenerate, but over time, the brain possibly can learn to make up for the loss of cells where the brain was damaged
-Structural brain imaging (such as MRIs) and neuropsychological testing are important to the analytical examination
-Effective treatment require educating the patient and the family about the illness
- Modifying the patient’s environment and way of life is also usually required to treat the illness
-Rehabilitation is also involved to evaluate what the patient can and cannot do, and is also used to teach new ways to perform tasks like problem solving and motor skills
-Using psychoactive medication sensibly may be helpful, but harmful effects are common

MALFUNCTIONS
Frontal Lobe Dysfunction
-Can occur from experiencing input that is excessively numbing: media, TV, internet, radio, dietary fat, sugar, alcohol, caffeine and many drugs, both legal and illegal.

Effects of this may be:
- Impairment of moral principle
- Social impairment (loss of love for family)
- Lack of foresight
- Inability to do abstract reasoning
- Inability to interpret Proverbs
- Diminished ability for mathematical understanding
- Loss of empathy
- Lack of restraint (boasting, hostility, aggressiveness.)
- Depression
-The most common damage is to the frontal lobe is from a TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) to the front area of your head such as concussions, car crashes, and gun shots. Strokes and diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s in which blood flow to the brain is decreased, can also cause injury to the frontal lobe. The injury ranges from mild and temporary to life threatening. The degree of brain injury is rated according to the Glasgow coma Scale, with lower numbers denoting more serious damage and less chance of recovery from the injury.
Frontal Lobe Damage
Effects of this may be
- Apathy
- Inability to concentrate
- Slowness in answering questions
- Loss of inhibition (inappropriate social actions)
- Damage to the middle of the front lobe may affect the ability to move the eyes and interfere with speech and to carry out complex movements in sequence may also be disrupted.
- Damage to the back of the frontal lobe can cause weakness or paralysis.
- Left frontal lobe damage will affect language, verbal skills and positive emotions.
- Right frontal lobe damage will affect non-verbal communication and negative emotions.

Frontal Lobe functions
-the ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions, to choose between good and bad actions (or better and best)
-restrain the person from socially unacceptable responses (ex: urge to slap someone you think is dumb)
-determine similarities and differences between things or events. The frontal lobes also help in retaining longer term memories that are not task-based (planned actions for a specific time that are not based on performing a task). These are often memories associated with emotions that receive input from the brain’s limbic system. The frontal lobe modifies these emotions to fit socially acceptable norms.

MAIN FUNCTIONS
Prefrontal Cortex
Prefrontal Cortex: Believed to be responsible for maintaining goals by sending signals to influence the body, and also in charge of maintaining rules (proper behavior). The prefrontal cortex makes sure that the objectives someone wants to accomplish are followed.
Premotor Cortex
Premotor Cortex: In charge of object manipulation (after it has been acquired) Ex. Moving an object between your fingers, moving an object in your mouth
Motor Cortex
Motor Cortex: Controls muscle movement by sending a signal to each muscle when movement is needed
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