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The Great Red Scare

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nate degroat

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of The Great Red Scare

The "Red Scare" was a belief that a Communist revolution was going to occur in the US. The American people and government were afraid that their democratic ideas and freedoms would be taken over by Communists.
The First Great Red Scare
And Connections to the Salem Witch Trials
What was the "Great Red Scare?"
Spanish Influenza Outbreak
for all"
Palmer Raids
Following WWI, the US went into major debt, resulting in inflation, which affected all Americans. Since America was one of the largest traders in the world, many other countries were also effected by the Great Depression. In addition, there were many union strikes across the country where workers asked for more money. The largest strike occurred in a Seattle Washington shipyard, where 65,000 people refused to work, until they received better pay for the tiring labor they completed.
November 11, 1918
May 16, 1918
June 1919
December 21, 1919
Schenck vs. USA
Industrial Workers of the World
Connection to Salem
Post WWI Economy and Strikes
Palmer Raids
New Immigration Laws
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
Sedition Act
Spanish Influenza Outbreak
Emma Goldman Deported
June 1917
Espionage Act of 1917
Espionage Acts
In June 1917, US Congress passed the Espionage Act, which punished individuals for obstructing foreign policy and the military draft. The convicted were forced to pay a $10,000 fine and serve 20 years in prison.
The Spanish influenza began in the spring of 1918 and was extremely prominent by the end of summer that year.
Nicknamed the Spanish Influenza, Americans laid the blame of starting the pandemic on immigrants, when in reality, America’s own soldiers were believed to come back from war carrying the disease.

Schenck vs. USA was a court case involving a man named Charles Schenck who was convicted of violating the Espionage Act.
Sedition Act of 1918
Congress passed the Sedition Act to punish Americans that spoke out against the Constitution, government, flag, and American Military uniform. Following the creation of these laws, Americans feared the beginning of Communism in the US government, as the Espionage and Sedition laws violated the freedom of speech set forth in the First Amendment of the US Constitution.
Connection to Salem
Post WWI Economy and Strikes
Hanging of "witches" during Salem Witch Trials
In June 1919, Carlo Valdinoci, a radical anarchist, blew up the home of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. This was just one of the eight attacks across the US targeting high ranking politicians. Palmer, who survived the attack, teamed up with US Justice Department lawyer, Edgar Hoover, and executed the famous Palmer Raids. The two men created a group of law enforcement officials and swept through major cities, arresting over 10,000 suspected anarchists.
Emma Goldman dedicated her life to “creation of radically new social order”. Known as one of the two most dangerous anarchists in America, she was often harassed and arrested. Nevertheless, she became a prominent figure of freedom of speech in the USA. She immigrated from Russia, which laid her grounds of political and economical knowledge. She also took part in the organization of unions and promotion of feminism. Deported in 1919, she continued to take part in political associations from the Russian Revolution to the Spanish Civil War. Goldman and Berkman were released during America's Red Scare of 1919–20 when public anxiety about wartime pro-German activities had morphed into a pervasive fear of Bolshevism and the prospect of an imminent radical revolution.

Industrial Workers of the World. (Union group.) Founded by Eugene Debs. At this point had already been noted as objecting to WWI and seen as un-American for that. This union had strikes, one of them being the Seattle shipyard strike.
Soviet Ark
By: Nate DeGroat, Will Brownlowe, Kayleigh Yavorski, Alyssa Ryan
Rebirth of KKK
December 1919
Soviet Ark
The KKK was established in the late 1800's, but did not become very popular until 1915 when it was re-established by Colonel William Simmons. He lit a cross on top of a mountain to symbolize the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan.
The Great Red Scare was a series of events that occurred in the early 1900's in the United States.
Connection to Salem
Death Rate from Spanish Influenza
Political cartoon from 1920s
Political cartoon from a New Jersey newspaper in 1918.
Connection to Salem
Connection to Salem
Schenck distributed thousands of flyers to convince people not to join the military to help the war effort.
This relates to Salem because people were always fighting over land because the more land you had the wealthier you were. You survived off the land. As more people came into the area, people lost land, this relates to the great depression hitting and people fighting for jobs. In Salem during the hysteria, people accused others of participating in witchcraft in order to gain valuable land.
The Soviet Ark carried 250 Communist
Russians back to Russia as a "Christmas
Gift" to Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky.

From left to right: Emma Goldman, Ethel Bernstein, Peter Bianki, Alexander Berkman

(Leading Personages)
This event relates to Salem in 1692 because Schenck was trying to convince people not to join the army because the U.S was greedy. In Salem, Reverend Parris was being questioned as the minister of the church because he was very greedy and selfish which was the opposite of what was expected of a reverend.
In addition, Schenck was prosecuted and jailed under the Sedition Act of 1918, which violated the freedom of speech. During the Salem Witch Trials, the theocratic government falsely accused people of being witches, who spoke out against the Church.
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
In the Salem Witch Trials, the government looked to cleanse Salem of all "witches", or people they believed were going to overthrow the Church. Although, in Salem they took a more radical approach, hanging the accused witches, instead of just arresting them as they did in the Palmer Raids.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Connection To Salem
Similar to Salem, members of the IWW already committed some sense of a “crime." They were more likely to be labeled "radical anarchists" or "communists." In Salem in 1692, men and women that went against the word of the church were frowned upon by the government and more likely to be accused as a witch.
Industrial Workers of the World Logo
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted of the murder of Frederic A. Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli by a prejudiced jury and Judge Webster Thayer in 1921. They were both Italian immigrants that came to America in 1908. Thought to be Communist because they were foreigners, atheists, and anarchists, Judge Thayer falsely accused Sacco and Vanzetti of the murders and had them put to death.
Connection to Salem
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were falsely accused and put to death by the electric chair without a fair trial. In Salem, the men and women accused of being witches were also hung unjustly. The Salem government had no evidence suggesting they were actual witches, they just went by the testimonials of high ranking church members and officials. There was no way for the victims of the witch trials to appeal there conviction.
Immigration Laws
Emergency Quota Act of 1921: Gave countries a limit for immigration. Every country had a different limit that they had to uphold. Exceptions to this rule were tourists, government, families of American citizens, and countries that had previous agreements with the U.S.
Immigration Act of 1924: quotas were cut down, did not allow any Japanese immigrants. Provided countries with an allowance of two percent of all of the people of that nationality in the United States (uses the 1890 census.)
Political Cartoon in 1924 newspaper
Connection To Salem
When the KKK gained popularity across the US from 1915 to 1921, it gave people a legitimate excuse to hate anarchists and communists. In Salem, the growth of the witch trials allowed people that hated their neighbors to accuse them of witchcraft, which essentially led to their death.
In Salem, people faced severe punishment (Death by hanging) for speaking out against the church. Just as the Espionage Act had a harsh and excessive punishment of 20 years in prison, accused witches were put to death for going against the popular belief.
Photograph of women protesting the Espionage and Sedition Acts in 1917.
Connection to Salem
In Salem, the theocratic government targeted witches as the source of their problems, like smallpox, just as the US blamed immigrants. Prior to the 1962 hysteria, Salem had been facing many economic, land, and power struggles. Then, the opportunity came to accuse the witches of their trouble and the Salem government took it, thus leading to many unnecessary deaths.
Accused "witches" were targeted for speaking badly about the church and government. This stripped them of the freedom of speech just as the Sedition Act did to millions of Americans.
It is evident that history often repeats itself. There are many parallels between the First Great Red Scare from 1917 to 1921, and the Salem Witch trials hundreds of years earlier in 1692. In both events, specific groups of people were targeted by the government and other citizens, and faced severe punishment.
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