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Copy of Tuskegee Experiment Presentation
Transcript of Copy of Tuskegee Experiment Presentation
- These men were never told what disease they were suffering from or of its seriousness.
- For participating in the study, the men were given free medical care, meals, and free burial insurance. They were never told they had syphilis, nor were they ever treated for it.
- According to the Centers for Disease Control, the men were told they were being treated for "bad blood". Their doctors had no intention of curing them of syphilis at all.
- By the end of the experiment, 28 of the men had died directly of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with syphilis
- For forty years between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service conducted an experiment on 399 black men in the late stages of syphilis Timeline of Events 1900 -Tuskegee educational experiment gains widespread support. Rosenwald Fund provides monies to develop schools, factories, businesses, and agriculture.
1926 -Health is seen as inhibiting development and major health initiative is started. Syphilis is seen as major health problem. Prevalence of 35 percent observed in reproductive age population.
1929 -Aggressive treatment approach initiated with mercury and bismuth. Cure rate is less than 30 percent; treatment requires months and side effects are toxic, sometimes fatal.
1929 -"Wall Street Crash"--economic depression begins.
1931 -Rosenwald Fund cuts support to development projects. Clark and Vondelehr decide to follow men left untreated due to lack of funds in order to show need for treatment program. 1932 -Follow-up effort organized into study of 399 men with syphilis and 201 without. The men would be given periodic physical assessments and told they were being treated. Motin agrees to support study if "Tuskegee Institute gets its full share of the credit" and black professionals are involved (Dr. Dibble and Nurse Rivers are assigned to study).
1934 -First papers suggest health effects of untreated syphilis.
1936 -Major paper published. Study criticized because it is not known if men are being treated. Local physicians asked to assist with study and not to treat men. Decision was made to follow the men until death.
1940 -Efforts made to hinder men from getting treatment ordered under the military draft effort.
1945 -Penicillin accepted as treatment of choice for syphilis. Timeline of Events Cont. 1947 -USPHS establishes "Rapid Treatment Centers" to treat syphilis; men in study are not treated, but syphilis declines.
1962 -Beginning in 1947, 127 black medical students are rotated through unit doing the study.
1968 -Concern raised about ethics of study by Peter Buxtun and others.
1969 -CDC reaffirms need for study and gains local medical societies' support (AMA and NMA chapters officially support continuation of study).
1972 -First news articles condemn studies.
1972 -Study ends. 1973 -Congress holds hearings and a class-action lawsuit is filed on behalf of the study participants.
1974 -A $10 million out-of-court settlement is reached and the U.S. government promised to give lifetime medical benefits and burial services to all living participants. The Tuskegee Health Benefit Program (THBP) was established to provide these services.
1975 -Wives, widows and offspring were added to the program.
1995 -The program was expanded to include health as well as medical benefits.
1997 -On May 16th President Clinton apologizes on behalf of the Nation.
2004 -The last U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee participant dies on January 16.
2009 -The last widow receiving THBP benefits dies on January 27. Legal Issues - Alabama and Macon County health departments turned a blind eye to the study's violations of state law requiring the reporting and treatment of venereal disease, but the study was never really invisible.
- Fred D. Gray (of Tuskegee and Montgomery) sued the PHS (Public Health Service) and Alabama on behalf of the men and their survivors in a case that settled outside of court for $10 million and medical care for the families.
- Reverberations from the public outcry of the study led to the establishment of institutional review boards for the approval of research studies, with strict guidelines about informing participants about the purposes and potential consequences for taking part in such studies.
- No one was ever prosecuted for the crimes committed during the study, despite violations of Alabama state law on reporting disease and what could have been construed as intentionally causing deaths.
- Henderson Act of 1943 Major Players Dr. Tailaferro Clark "The Syphilis Men" Dr. Eugene Dibble Dr. Oliver C. Wenger Dr. John R. Heller Nurse Eunice Rivers Charlie Pollard Major Players Cont. Herman Shaw James H. Jones Fred D. Gray The Rosenwald Fund Outcome - Clinton Apology - http://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/New/Remarks/Fri/19970516-898.html - The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bio-ethical Issues - http://bioethics.gov/cms/about The Tuskegee Experiment By: Avery Kampfmueller