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Classical Period-Youtube

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Sebastian Ruzycki

on 9 October 2017

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Transcript of Classical Period-Youtube

Period of Enlightenment
American Declaration of Independence
French Revolution
Napoleon becomes first consul of France
Napoleonic Wars
Political and economic power shifted from aristocracy to the middle class.
The Classical Period (1750-1820)
Flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music.
A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patters, whereas a baroque piece contains few patters.
The classical style includes unexpected pauses, syncopation and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes.
Rhythm
In contrast to the polyphonic texture of late baroque music, classical music is mostly homophonic.
Music during this period shifted from one texture to another.
A piece can start with one texture and suddenly change.
Texture
Composers of the classical period did not restrict themselves to terraced dynamics.
Interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change-crescendo and decrescendo.
The gradual dynamics change led to the replacement of the harpsichord to the piano.
Dynamics and the Piano
Musicians were strongly affected by changes in society, and in the careers of the three classical we can trace the slow emancipation of the composer.
Haydn, who was content to spend most of his life serving a wealthy aristocratic family. Composing music whenever ordered to.
Mozart, could not bear being treated as a servant; he broke from his court position and went to Vienna to become a freelance composer.
Beethoven, able to work as an independent musician in Vienna. His success was gained through a wider middle-class.
Composers, Patrons, and Public in the Classical Period
Considered to be the "Father of the Symphony and the String Quartet"
Born in a tiny Austrian village Called Rohrau.
At the age of 8, he went to Vienna to serve as a choirboy in the Cathedral of St. Stephen. After his voice changed he was dismissed and ended up on the street without a penny.
Gradually, aristocratic patrons began to notice his talents. In 1761, Haydn entered the service of the Esterhazys, the richest and most powerful of the Hungarian noble families.
Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
One of the most amazing child prodigies in history, born in Salzburg, Austria. By the time he was six, he could play the harpsichord and violin, improvise fugues, write minuets and read music perfectly at first sight. At the age of eight, he wrote a symphony; at eleven, an oratorio; at twelve, an opera.
Unlike Haydn, Mozart began his professional life as an international celebrity, pampered by kings.
In Salzburg, Mozart worked for the Archbishop Colloredo. Later, moved to Vienna to be a freelance composer.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756-1791)
Requiem Mass in D minor
Intro and Kyrie
Composer: Wolfgang Mozart
Naxos Catalog No. CD98.146
Listening Guide
Characteristics of the Classical style
Contrast of Mood
Great Variety and contrast of mood received new emphasis in classical music.
Not only are there contrasting themes within a movement, but there are also striking contrast within a single theme.
Mood in classical music may change gradually or suddenly.
Melody
The End of Basso Continuo
The Classical Orchestra
Classical melodies are among the most tuneful and easiest to remember, but still highly sophisticated.
Classical melodies tend to sound balanced and symmetrical because they are made up of two phrases.
The second phrase in melodies may begin like the first, but ends more conclusively.
Continued
By varying the finger pressure on the keys, a pianist can play more loudly and softly.
Began to replace the harpsichord around 1775.
Most keyboard compositions were written for the piano.
Originally called
fortepiano
, weighed much less than the modern piano and had thinner strings help by a frame made of wood rather than metal.
The basso continuo was gradually abandoned during the classical period.
Became obsolete because more and more music was written for amateurs, who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
Composers wanted more control, they preferred to specify the accompaniment rather than leave it to the performer.
A new orchestra evolved during the classical period - a standard group of strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion.
Compared to the baroque orchestra, which could vary from to piece.
Composers would exploit the individual tone colors of orchestral instruments.
Continued
Spent much of his time at Eszterhaza, a magnificent but isolated palace in Hungry that contained an opera house, a theater, 2 concert halls.
Haydn was to compose all the music requested by his patron, conduct the orchestra of about 25 players, coach singers, and oversee the condition of instruments and the operation of the music library.
Classical Form
Sonata Form
Also known as
Sonata-Allegro Form
.
An astonishing amount of important music of this period was composed in Sonata Form.
Sonata Form refers to the form of a single movement. It should not be confused with the term sonata, which is used for a whole composition made of several movements.
Continued
Sonata Form movement consists of three main sections.
Exposition - repeats
First theme in the home key
Transition
Second theme in a new key
Closing theme in the same key as the second theme
Development
Developing ideas in many keys
Recapitulation
First theme back in the home key
Transition
Second theme is in the home key
Closing section in the home key
Coda
in the home key
Listening Guide
Symphony No. 40 K. 550
First Movement: Sonata From
Composer: Wolfgang Mozart
Naxos Catalog No. ATM-CD-1183
Minuet and Trio
Listening Guide
Eine Kleine Nacht Musik "A Little Night Music"
Third Movement: Minuet and Trio
Composer: Wolfgang Mozart
Naxos Catalog No. ATM-CD-1183
Often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, and other works
Like the movements of the baroque suit, the minuet originated as a dance.
Minuet (A)
a(repeated) ba'(repeated)
Trio (B)
c(repeated) dc' (repeated)
Minuet (A)
a ba'
Theme and Variations
Rondo
Theme and Variations can be an independent piece or as a movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet.
Contains a basic musical idea, the theme, that is repeated over and over and is changed each time.
Each variation can change in mood, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, tone color, different keys, or in another voice.
Theme
Variation 1
Variation 2
Variation 3
A
A'
A''
A'''
etc
Listening Guide
Symphony No. 94 "The Surprise"
Second Movement: Theme and Variations
Composer: Joseph Haydn
Naxos Catalog No. PNCD472
A Rondo features a tuneful main theme (A) which returns several times in alternation with other themes.
The main theme is usually lively, pleasing and simple to remember.
The Rondo can be used either as an independent piece or as a movement of a symphony, string quartet, or sonata.
ABACA
ABACABA
Sonata-Rondo
Listening Guide
String Quartet in C minor Op.18 No. 4
Fourt movement: Rondo
Composer: Ludwig van Beethoven
Classical Genres
The Classical Opera
Opera Seria - Serious opera that is set to historical events. (sun in Italian)
Opera Buffa - Comic opera that has a plot centered on ordinary people in the present day. (sung in Italian)
Dramma Giocoso - A category of opera featuring a mixture of comic and serious elements (Sung in Italian)
Singspiel - was an opera in German with spoken dialogue, musical numbers, and usually a comic plot.
Listening Guide
Opera: Don Giovanni
Drama Giocoso: Aria - "Madamina" from Act 1
Composer: Wolfgang Mozart
Naxos Catalog No. HLCD95067
The Symphony
Listening Guide
Symphony No. 5 in C minor
First Movement and Fourth Movement
Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven
Naxos Catalog No. 7163
The Classical Concerto
Listening Guide
The Sonata
Listening Guide
Sonata in C Major "Waldstein"
First Movement
Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven
Naxos Catalog No. LVC1064
Chamber Music: The String Quartet
Piano Concerto No. 21
First Movement
Composer: Wolfgang Mozart
Listening Guide
A symphony is an extended, ambitious composition typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra.
Usually consists of 4 movements which evoke a wide range of emotions through contrasts of tempo and mood.
Is a three-movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra.
It combines the soloist's virtuosity and interpretive abilities with the orchestra's wide range of tone color and dynamics.
Like the symphony. concertos can last from 20 to 40 minutes.
The first and sometimes the last movement contains a
cadenza
, a special showpiece for the soloist.
Chamber music is designed for the intimate setting of a room in a home, rather than a public concert hall.
It is performed by a small group of two to nine musicians, with one player to a part.
The most popular form in a classical chamber music is the string quartet, written for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello.
A significant starting point for the Classical period is the sudden flowering of the solo keyboard sonata.
Often applies to either a solo keyboard or the keyboard and another instrument, often the violin or cello.
Piano Sonata No. 16
Mozart
Ludwig Van Beethoven
(1770-1827)
Listening Guide
Sonata in C minor, "Pathetique"
First Movement
Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven
Listening Guide
Symphony No. 9 in D minor
Fourth Movement: "Ode to Joy"
Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven
Represents the highest level of musical genius. His unique stature is comparable to Shakespeare's in literature and Michelangelo's in painting and sculpture.
Born in Bonn Germany.
Shortly before his 22nd birthday, Beethoven left Bonn to study with Haydn in Vienna,
Never worked under any aristocrats like Haydn, he did play for people of royalty.
Continued
Earned good fees from piano lessons and private concerts. Publishers were quick to purchase his compositions.
Disaster struck during his 29th year: Beethoven felt the first symptoms of deafness. In 1819, Beethoven was completely deaf.
String Quartet Op. 18 No. 4
Composer: Ludwig Van Beethoven
The Early Years
Began to establish himself as a pianist and a composer.
Began to study under Haydn.
Kept eighteenth century techniques and ideas.
The Heroic Years
Began to compose in a new, more ambitious style that marks the pivotal point in his career.
Composed the Eroica symphony.
Began to go deaf.
The Final Years
Composed the famous 9th symphony
Was completely deaf.
Became secluded and began to compose music with great virtuosity.
Continued
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