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BI 1: Intro to Evolution

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Kimberly Christian

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of BI 1: Intro to Evolution

Evolution: An Introduction
"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."
Theodosius Dobzhansky
What role does evolution play in the organization of living things?
What evidence supports our current models of the origin of life?
How does the process of evolution drive the diversity and unity of life?
How does life evolve in changing environments?
What you will be able to answer...
What you will learn...
EU 1.A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
EU 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.
EU 1.C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.
EU 1.D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
A Brief History
Natural Selection: An Overview
Examples of Evolution
Artificial Selection
Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Origins of Life
Linnaeus - mid-1700's
Hutton - 1795
Aristotle - 300's BC
Lamarck - 1809
Malthus - 1798
Cuvier - early-1800's
Lyell - 1830
Darwin - 1859
Wallace - mid-1800's
How did a bird wing evolve from the foreleg of its reptile ancestor?
In terms of evolution, the goal of life is to SURVIVE long enough to REPRODUCE - a lot.
aka "Survival of the Fittest"
fitness ~ number of offspring
an individual contributes to
the next generation
The Peppered Moths' Story
1. Pre-Industrial Revolution, England: Lichens (algae + fungus) grew abundantly on bark of trees. White moths successfully camouflaged in tree.
2. A mutation occurs in the white moth population, resulting in a new phenotype: black moths.
3. Industrial Revolution: Lichens start to die, exposing darker tree barks.
4. Post-Industrial Revolution: Black moths have more successful camouflage, survive longer, and reproduce more than white moths.
5. Black moths become more common in subsequent generations.
Evolution - change in the
genetic distribution
of a
many generations
viewed species as fixed (unchanging)
scala naturae - life could be arranged in order of increasing complexity
views consistent with creationism beliefs of Old Testament
developed classification system and binomial nomenclature (naming) system
classification of organisms based physical traits
Domain (added recently)
gradualism - Earth's geologic features are the result of slowly accumulating changes
human population growth has potential to exceed the availability of resources (food, water, shelter), leading to human suffering
first hypothesized HOW life changes
1. use and disuse - parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger; body parts that are not used deteriorate
2. inheritance of acquired characteristics - organisms pass physical changes to themselves onto their offspring
How would Lamarck explain these long necked giraffes?
against evolution
catastrophism - events affecting organisms of the past occurred suddenly by mechanisms no longer operating today
fossil boundaries could be explained by catastropic events
uniformitarianism - mechanisms of geological change are constant over time; the rate of change today is the same as in the past
greatly influenced by Malthus, Hutton, Lyell
described evolution as "descent with modification" whereby the environment defines adaptations that allow organisms to survive competition and reproduce
developed a theory nearly identical to Darwin's
too late - Darwin published first!
protobionts - precursors to living things; collections of abiotically produced organic molecules surrounded by a membrane; able to carry out simple metabolism, regulation, reproduction
simple prokaryotes arise (3.5 BYA) from protobionts
eukaryotes develop (2.1 BYA) by endosymbiosis
all modern day organisms share common features:
carry out glycolysis (respiration)
contain DNA based on A, C, G, T code
mutation arises in bacteria population allowing some bacteria to survive when exposed to antibiotics
all bacteria treated with antibiotics
non-resistant bacteria die
resistant bacteria survive, reproduce, and become increasingly more common with each generation (and bacteria generations go by fast!)
humans can selectively breed plants and animals with desirable traits to develop unique species/subspecies
Full transcript