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Water Supply In Nepal

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Luke Zammit

on 3 May 2014

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Transcript of Water Supply In Nepal

Problem Definition
Sandikhola is a disadvantaged society, with agriculture and minimal economic revenue to support themselves.

Limited access to water, sanitation and hygiene.

As a student engineer, I need to consider what is affordable, will satisfy needs and be something to insert easily into the community.

A solution is important as it furthers the communities’ education and hygienic standards, and reaps rewards as people have access to improved facilities.
Cultural Considerations

The Major Nepalese religion is Hindu.

Women are a lower social caste and men dominate most aspects of life.

The school is Sandikhola only has grades 1-3 (EWB, 2014 (WASH)).

Education is at a minimum and most of the culture lives below the international poverty line depending on agriculture and the little livelihood they have to sustain them.

The main occupation in Nepal is Agriculture.

‘Eighty percent of the population practice agriculture as a main occupation to sustain their livelihood’ (Shrestha, A & Aryal, R, 2011, Pg. 66).

Agriculture allows individuals to grow crops, maintain livelihood as a source of food and money, and provide an income.

Nepal often experiences seasonal monsoons.

‘Nepal has an acute shortage of water and remains one of the poorest countries in the world’ (Shrestha, D. 2009).

As climate change takes effect, and the glaciers continue to melt, dams are created at the base of mountains or valleys. These dams are weak, liable to break without warning.

Combined with earthquakes these can cause damage to existing infrastructure and health problems due to chemicals

Drinking, clean water is not readily available

Community liable to experience monsoonal weather

Economic Considerations
As defined by EWB, the population is ultra poor or poor, which means they have food supplies that will only last them 3-6 months (2014).

There is insufficient surplus for them to sustain themselves as well as improve their quality of life.

Tourism contributes significantly to Nepal’s economy, however this is not the case for Sandikhola with roads narrow and too steep to navigate to get resources to the people in these hilltop communities.

Resources are expensive and therefore secondary to subsistence.

Design Options


→ Rainwater

→ Fog water

and the collection of such....

Option Selection
We chose to investigate Fog water as the nets have a lifespan of up to 10 years.

They have to be cleaned monthly but pipes need to be cleaned daily. With the right community input this should not be a problem.

Fog tanks generally are smaller, and are less labour intensive generally allowing Sandikhola to understand it easily.

We can replace PVC pipes and metal structures with bamboo which will decrease the amount of imported materials and thereby the cost.

By using bamboo we are eco-friendly as well as allowing them to replace parts easily without expensive import costs and time delays.

Implementation procedure
This design shall be integrated into society through the use of education programs in order to promote community involvement and ownership of designs by the community.

It is important to allow the community to be a part of the assembly process of the design as in the future they will be able to build their own or fix arising problems.

The interaction of the community with the design is the most important part.

Materials need to be cheap, durable and moveable. Bamboo can be used for structure as it is readily available and strong.

Implementation Procedure continued...
At first an engineer and a translator should be a part of the set up in order to ensure it is structurally sound and technically correct, as well as in the right location.

A translator is needed to educate the locals in their language instead of bombarding them with foreign terms.

The implementation of the fog water design must satisfy the ethics of the community and provide a long-term sustainable solution which will enable the community to continually use the fog water design for many years.

Furthermore the maintenance of the fog design includes the cleaning of any foreign objects from the pipes or nets which needs to be cleared daily.

Although this may prove time consuming for the community it will provide great benefits for them as acquired knowledge to maintain the design is minimal allowing minimal training for the individuals.
The Cost will be met through fund raising and charity in wealthier countries.

It is too much a strain on the Nepalese society to expect them to pay when most of them live on less than $2 a day, that being below the international poverty line.

Based on a previous design, a 40m^2 net design would cost from $1000-$1500 US, BUT, can be reduced by using bamboo
We have designed a new and innovative water storage system which allows the community to store and transport water without the need of having multiple storage systems.

This relates to design requirements as the community can have a readily accessible water source in their house.

It is cheap and accessible with materials such as bamboo being used which uses the natural resources of the community and does not place economic strain on them.

By harvesting the water from fog, it releases the strain on the ground water allowing the community to be more self sufficient.
Some examples are:
2013, Increasing Water Access in Rural and Urban Communities, Mission 2017, 03/04/2014, <http://12.000.scripts.mit.edu/mission2017/solutions/engineering-solutions/increasing-water-access-in-rural-and-urban-communities/>.

Design Area 2: WASH, 2013, Engineers without Borders, 03/04/2014, <http://www.ewbchallenge.org/nepal-water-health-newah/design-area-2-wash>.

How Do Reverse Osmosis Filter Systems Work & What Do They Do? 2009, ESP Water Products, 03/04/2014, <http://espwaterproducts.com/about-reverse-osmosis.htm>.

Water Supply In Nepal

It is important that strong graphs and tables are used
to indicate the benefit of our design.
Long term effects should be shown in projected tables
Pictures of existing designs provide a foundation to work with and encourages us to think along similar lines but with cheaper more durable materials
Power point's and Prezis like this will engage and hold the audiences attention.
Visual Communication
We form a team and intend to work together by
ongoing communication in the form of emails, regular meetings and skype to ensure that we are in constant contact with a similar aim of providing Sandikhola, Nepal with an ongoing, sustainable water supply design.
Full transcript