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Latin America

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by

Sarah Rudomen

on 3 January 2015

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Transcript of Latin America

Latin America
Haitian Independence
Background
Haiti was formerly called Saint Dominique and was a colony that belonged to the French.
By the 18th century Saint Dominique was France’s most productive and wealthiest overseas colony due to cash crops such as sugar, indigo, and coffee. These crops were being produced by the thousands of enslaved natives on the island.


Mexican Independence
Independence movement began with conspiracy among Creoles, led to
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
calling for help from American Indians and mestizos in 1810.
Father Miguel won victories but lost support of the Creoles who feared social rebellion more than they wanted independence from Spain.
After 1820, rebels desire for independence increased with the weakening of Spain's monarchs.
Rebels united with other forces to gain independence but
Augustin de Iturbide
, a Creole officer sent to destroy the rebels, made an agreement with them and occupied Mexico City in 1821.
Mexico declared independence in 1821 from Spain and Iturbide was declared emperor of Mexico.
Iturbide's rule lasted until 1823 when Mexico became a republic.
Central America was attached to the Mexican Empire after its collapse in 1824.
In 1838, Mexico and Central America separated into independent nations.
Miguel Hidalgo is often referred to as the "Father of Mexico" and is honored by the Mexican people.
Conclusion
Background
Latin American Successes
Political
none
Problems Latin America Faced After Independence
Brazilian Independence
Brazil had become major trade location at end of 18th century and onwards
Trade + commerce increase once Portuguese arrive after Napoleonic invasions in Portugal
Brazil established as resourceful locations of trade and commerce and was opened to world trade
Unlike the Spanish American areas, Brazil and
its new gov't worked well together
Dom Joao VI
- Portuguese king in Brazil
Left his son
Pedro
to rule over the empire
after the defeat of Napoleon + liberal
revolution that had occurred in Portugal
Dom Pedro I
Refused to return to Portugal
1822
: Declared Brazilian independence
Became constitutional emperor of Brazil
Independence didn't ruin social organization ( slavery ) or really change political structure
Brazil becomes a
monarchy
United States Economic & Political Imperialism
Economic
Markets for Cuban sugar in US
Spanish-American War
direct involvement in Caribbean
Area to build canal between Atlantic and Pacific ports
Panama Canal
US gained rights over Panama Canal after helping Panamanian independence movement
Quicker way to trade across Central America

Political
US begins to have interest in Latin America
after
Civil War
Needed
: new markets and raw goods
Demand for Latin American products due to pop boom
War ( over Cuba + Puerto Rico ) between US and Spain sparked nations to imperialize
US gains control of Philippines after joining Cuba in war against Spain in 1898
By: Anne-Marie Romain, Sarah Rudomen, Michelle Rupe
Political
Social
Economic
they were divided over whether or not the Church should have such a prominent role in the new nations -liberals were against it but were aware that they were in need of the Church's support in order to survive
political instability because many local armies did not have allegiance to the gov't but instead were loyal to
caudillos
-independent leaders who dominate local areas and sometimes attempt to take over the national gov't
they were also divided over whether or not they should have a centralist republic with a strong centralized national gov't or a federalist gov't that allowed regional gov't to handle tax & commercial policies
there was also tension between liberals who wanted a decentralized secular gov't and conservatives who wanted a strong centralized state
also political divisions, regional rivalries and economic competition prevented new nations from aligning leaving them vulnerable to outside threats
people of mixed races were mistreated and often overly taxed om order to support the new nation
religious strife over whether or not Catholicism should be the only religion or there should be religion freedoms in the new nations
slavery was often still a problem as many new nations still relied on it to support their economy
many new nations restricted the rights of the people out of fear that too much freedom would allow them to revolt against the government
racial prejudice, social stratification, and discrimination against women still a problem that many new nations faced
due to an imbalance of trade Latin America became increasingly dependent on foreign imports and foreign markets (namely the British)
also many Latin American nations became indebted to many foreign powers leaving them vulnerable to economic competition
Haitian Independence
The Haitian Revolution was a slave revolt against the French government. It began in 1791 and ended in 1804 when the they. declared themselves no longer Saint Dominique but the Independent Republic of Haiti. They won their independence through a series of battles under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Effects
Social Political Economic
Many whites in Haiti ran to the United States and Europe as refugees due to a wide spread massacre of whites after Haiti gained its independence.
Haiti became a symbol of hope and freedom for other enslaved nations.
In 1804 whites living in Haiti were massacred between 3,000 to 5,000 died.
Social
none
Economic
Global trade- traded coffee, sugar cane, bananas & other agricultural crops
France's economy declined due to loss of revenue.
The Louisiana Territory was sold as France could no longer afford to maintain it.

In the 19th century Latin American nations made the transition from colonies to independent nation states.
They had to deal with many issues such as foreign intervention , economic decline, internal conflicts, and political strife to name a few.
In an attempt to grow as a nation while still retaining their culture Latin America became a bit secluded from the world.
Latin America also attempted many political and social reforms in order to better the nation but most were unsuccessful.
Many things in L.A stayed the same; revolts were often, the upper-class elite managed most of the economy and most of the population depended on agriculture to survive.
Even as it changed Latin America was still valued for its raw materials and varieties of food that it exported to the West.
One of the reasons for the Latin American Revolutions was that many people were angered by the division and racism in their societies.
Key Terms
Toussaint L’Overture
: leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Miguel de Hidalgo: Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.

Augustín de Iturbide
: conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.

Simon Bolívar
: Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.

Gran Colombia
: existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.

José de San Martín
: leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.

João VI
: Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese Empire.

Pedro I
: son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor.

Andrés Santa Cruz
: mestizo general, would-be leader of a united Peru and Bolivia; the union never took place.

Caudillos
: leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.

Centralists
: Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.

Federalists
: Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
Key Terms Continued
Monroe Doctrine
: United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
Guano: bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.

Positivism
: a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Comte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.

Antonio López de Santa Anna
: Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.

Manifest Destiny
: belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Mexican-American War
: (1846–1848); American expansion leads to dispute over California and Texas.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)
: ratified by the United States; Mexico lost one-half of national its territory.

Benito Juárez
: Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Anna; defeated by the French who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.

La Reforma
: name of Juárez’s liberal revolution.

Maximilian von Habsburg
: Austrian archduke proclaimed Emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867.

Gauchos
: mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.

Juan Manuel de Rosas
: federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.

Argentine Republic
: replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.

Domingo F. Sarmiento
: liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.

Fazendas
: coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.


Key Terms Continued

Modernization theory
: the belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.

Dependency theory
: the belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.

Porfirio Díaz
: one of Juárez’s generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated politics for 35 years.

Cientificos
: advisors to Díaz’s government who were influenced strongly by positivist ideas.

Spanish-American War
: fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.

Panama Canal
: the United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panama isthmus.
Dom Pedro I
Many European nations held possessions in Latin America
Mexico was controlled by Spain
Brazil was controlled by Portugal
Haiti was controlled by France
Great Britain and the Dutch also controlled nations in Latin America
Many of these colonies were influenced to rebel because of growing feelings of nationalism, Enlightenment Ideals, the French Revolution, and mistreatment by Western Europe. Also as one colony successfully got its independence it gave others the confidence they needed to revolt.
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